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S I A* 

X£fr3Nnr o 90ifr 




Educational Works 

By Louise Robyn 

By Louise Robyn Price, 75 cents 

May be used in conjunction with any first grade instruction 
book for the piano. It contains the fifteen essential prin- 
ciples in first year piano technic, building up the child s 
hand so that his finger dexterity equals his music-reading 
ability, thus aiding his interpretative powers. Each prin- 
ciple is introduced in story element, a feature that appeals 
to the child's imagination and creates interest. 


is an indispensable book for the teacher. Price, 75 cents 


By Louise Robyn Price. 75 cents 

A continuation of Technic Tales, 
Book 1 for the second year of study at 
the piano. It contains fifteen addi- 
tional technical principles, including 
the trill, arm attack for single tones 
and triads, various crossing problems, 
alternate wrist action, finger staccato, 
melody tone, marcato chords, repeated 
notes, two-note slurs, etc. Teachers 
find these works absolutely indispensa- 
ble in correlating the musicianship 
studies of the modern instruction book 
with the technical development so es- 
sential to satisfactory playing. 

Price, 7S cents 

The teaching ideas in this manual will 
be appreciated by practical teachers. 

By Louise Robyn Price, 75 cents 

The tremendous success of Miss 
Robyn's Technic Tales, Books 1 and 2 
is undoubtedly due to the feasibility 
with which the study of them can be 
accomplished in conjunction with al- 
most any course for the piano. Nat- 
urally, the results achieved caused 
teachers to request a continuation of 
the work. The new and augmented 
edition of this Book 3 introduces the 
twelve fundamental chord-attacks — 
marcato, legato, staccato, hammer, 
arpeggiated, sforzando, pizzicato, ac- 
companiment, single finger melodic, 
melodic high and low voice, passage 
chord, and alternate chords. These 
may be given to students about ready 
for grade 4. The Robyn-Tchaikovsky 
Snow Queen (75c) is ideal for addi- 
tional study along these same lines. 


(The Child's Hanon) 


Includes 12 exercises, with applied etudes necessary in the 
fundamental technical training of the child begun in Technic 
Tales, Books One and Two. Each exercise has been "brought 
to life” with a descriptive story element. Helpful explanatory 
notes and photographic illustrations. Price, 75 cents 



This well selected and splendidly prepared album of piano 
study material is intended to enlarge the technical scope of 
the child piano pupil progressing in the second grade, and 
it has been prepared particularly for use by young pupils 
who have completed Miss Robyn's very popular Technic 
Tales, Books One and Two. Some etudes have been selected 
from Czerny, Lemoine, Kohler, and Burgmiiller, alternating 
with ten exercises selected from Friedrich Wieck's Album of 
Piano Technic. Wieck had extraordinary success as a piano 
teacher. Schumann, von Biilow, Spindler, Merkel, and others 
were his pupils as also were his two daughters, Marie and 
Clara, both of whom were successful concert p anists. Clara 
became the wife of Robert Schumann. Price. 75 cents 




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-F OUNDED 1883 BY T H £ 0 P^7~7^7T7j 7. 

Contents for 1/1/jarch , 1 947 

Vni.lIMC* ivtr a- 



Lean On Yourself 



.11. M 

, .Mai 




ta Ptyeke 
Schuittr j 

fiman , 

< ' omfort 
• llmgton 
m strong ; 
y Miller 1 
yrfy. ^r. ] 

Herein j 
Seaman 1 

Jacobt 1 


A Master Speaks of the Masters 
Sound Vocal Development * 

Th W 'n ,? ead t0 Musk ' 

Cello-Virtuosity or Musicianship'?'.'.;;;'. 


T h K 'S? harvest of Records 

Ude Music Dover's Bookshelf'. Peter If,, 

The Teacher's Hound Table 
Interpretations in°Jazz G * ner3 l Public. . ." ‘.‘.' i '.' 

Organ Accompaniments'. 


^eviohm^te^- Wi,li r 

More About Mazas ^ "'‘‘“^""‘'"'“il'or (Ole Bun, 

The Technique of K " Tl “' Oc/trfceni 

MUS, C Dr It CfflU 

C in7DS'r mPO ™°' S «'««»» 8 

i°p d r m r°' 3 ta 

Song Of the Mill. . ^ S ' H#nrp Lerinc 1 

Enn° U m Reginald Martin ] 

y m Organdy ' " Robert Sgd Duncan 1 

Vocal and * "arlos Rena Ido 1 

Sarabande TOoT"" 7 ' C ° m '>"' i «oni 1 

l violin and Pi ano ) (Frnm 

Thoughts of Bprine 1 C Flf ty Classic Masterpieces"— Vol I) 

Infte 0 ^ G ° od s hep^e U rd r (Or 8 ~ medium Co]cZ De,t " Uc ^~ Karl Rissland II 

e Cross Of Ce ’ Edna Earle Dunlap li 

** (Fr °tn "Twenty PiW„ "U Roland Digplc IS 
Delightful Pieces l„ r v„ „ Uhamar r n „l Du ^‘ Tfnnscrlptions") 

Tomahawk Dance U ” e ITaycri e V Clarence Kohlmann 16 

School t s Outt. 

e Winding Rover. Bruce Carleton 16: 

JUN,0R e tude ;;;;;;; 

N^w^^EOUS “ Elizabeth A. Cest 176 


naJc'bii/ *. C .°”‘!- cl u. 
f°' U. S. A 


r sec ond-clas( 

Zrh °j “ Phu - p ‘~ 

’ • >>} Theodore Press,, Co.. 

rW __ 

^ i m ssHj a,s ° in c 

f i® Single^ fePanadS SS iSSLS""*'. 

&2> ^n°U P at Dominican 

ltu ,n al > other countries. 



eun on 

O NCE on a trip to New Orleans 
during the war we saw two 
G. I. Joes returning from the 
front. Both had been wounded, but 
not to an extent that they were un- 
able to carry duffel bags. One was 
leaning on the other, as they walked 
along. Suddenly he was pushed aside 
by his companion, who said, “Lean 

on yo’sef, brother. You ain’t no cripple and I ain’t no crutch!” 

This significant remark made us think of the reason for the 
failure of many students. We know of the case of a woman 
student who studied with the late Constantin von Sternberg (1852- 
1924), in Philadelphia. Sternberg, a pupil of Moseheles, Reinecke, 
Kullak, and Liszt, was one of the foremost teachers of his day. 
He was capable of teaching a talented pupil to lean upon himself, 
but here was an instance of a wealthy woman who was a born 
trailer. She had never developed any motive power of her own 
and was lost without her master. 

The objective of every good teacher is to make his pupils inde- 
pendent. Any sound course of 
music study takes this into con- 
sideration. The old day, .when it 
sufficed to give a pupil a few 
pieces and a few exercises, is 
now happily past. The music 
teacher of standing seeks to 
provide a pupil with a well 
rounded equipment. He shows 
each pupil what is necessary to 
develop each phase of technic, 
finger exercises, scales, arpeg- 
gios, octaves, and then supplies 
him with the knowledge of how 
such technical equipment may 
be kept up, expanded, and de- 
veloped. This, together with an 
understanding of the structural 
background of music and an 
adequate repertoire, remains a 
pei*manent possession. 

Mr. Sternberg told us that 
after having studied with eleven 
famous teachers, he came to a 
time when he realized that he 
would have to start a new musi- 
cal existence and develop his 
own musical independence. It is 

not until a student reaches such a point that he becomes himself. 
Unsupported, unassisted, he must seek his own soul and develop 
new fields. Then, and then only does he become a distinct artist. 
He of course will continue to learn from his colleagues. He may, 
indeed, return at periods to other masters for special coaching. 
Two great master teachers, Theodore Leschetizky and Leopold 
Auer, always emphasized the need for student independence. Once, 
at the home of Ernest Schelling, Leopold Auer said to your editor, 
“A musical training that makes the pupil feel everlastingly that 
he is dependent upon his teacher never makes a real virtuoso'. 
The student must learn to think for himself. The master must 
sometimes resort to the Soeratic method of asking his pupil how 
he would solve this or that problem. If these problems are all 
solved by the teacher, the pupil is merely a follower, like a puppy 
on a string.” 

Auer died in 1930 but the astonishing number of virtuosos lie 
taught are still playing with consummate artistic mastery. He 
said, “The most interesting time in the student’s life is when he 



The famous Australian soprano singing with the French National Orchestra, 
conducted by Allred Wolii. at an important concert in La Cite Luminaire. 


is leaving the nest ; when he is try- 
ing his wings and going ahead on 
his own.” 

The fascinating thing about musi- 
cal development is that with the sin- 
cerely musical person it never need 
stop. There are opportunities on all 
sides for incessant self-development. This is particularly true in 
these days of radio and records and great numbers of new musi- 
cal books. The output of new musical books of high educational 
value, during the past year, is many times that of the first years 
of the present century. 

Personal independence, the habit of leaning on oneself is a trait 
which must be instilled from childhood. Many children are so 
hopelessly pampered that all through their afte.r lives they do as 
little real work as possible. Anything they can “put off” upon 
someone else is always passed along. They soon become so indolent 
that they finally become like mollusks, lolling in the river beds 

and waiting for the tides of life 
to bring food to their mouths. 
We have met many musical 
mollusks who are incapable of 
progressing, largely because of 
the fact, that in their early les- 
sons they were not trained to 
think for themselves. 

Many brave people who have 
met with disabilities cultivate 
a kind of independence which 
puts to shame that of many 
who have no unusual obstacles 
in their paths. One of the most 
independent, self-contained, and 
resolute musicians of the pres- 
ent day is our remarkable 
friend, Alec Templeton, who, 
despite a physical obstacle, has 
accomplished a hundred times 
as much as thousands of musi- 
cians who lacked his independ- 
ence and his enthusiasm to 
reach musical achievements 
which have brought great joy 
to millions. Behind all of his 
work is a sound musicianship 
which has commanded the re- 
spect of leading musicians of his day. Much of Mr. Templeton’s 
work is so distinctly original that his independence of thought is 
obvious to all. 

Another great artist who has surprised the world by refusing 
to lean on others, after she met with a severe case of poliomyelitis, 
is the famous Australian grand opera prima donna, Marjorie 
Lawrence. Readers of The Etude must feel a rich bond with Miss 
Lawrence, as she has related her early devotion to The Etude, 
when she was a girl in Australia, at which time she stated she 
used to wait at her garden gate for days until the postman brought 
her copy. After recovering from her severe attack she was unable 
to walk, but this did not dismay an artist of her independent 
spirit. Her voice became more glorious than ever before and she 
returned to the Metropolitan Opera Company and to the concert 
stage in America and in Europe, meeting with unusual success. 
What a splendid example of independence! She did not give up 
and lean on public sympathy. Not courageous Marjorie Lawrence! 

Recently, in lunching with the very active and clear thinking 

(Continued on Page 173) 


MARCH, 1947 

music and Culture 

. A Master Speaks of the Masters 

Isidor Philipp- Evokes Great Names of the Past 

cm rice cj£)iune 5 iiil 

Concert Pianist and Author 


r ^jssstjss 

rmrn Tv^ZIn S°of a g ]a r dWa H y ’ Isldor 


unsettled 11 ^ 13 ' ‘yiT anTS ^“m”* there ’ 80 

the W «S SFZJT b6aUtifUl lyric ««ate S 

was a center^ attraction °? nstr “ oted > the capital 
ot the 

o a ne m a rir?he w ?r r ? aS 

Those were 

Meeting Liszt 

mS% d tofe a N y Dm-dillt U T n l PhilipP Was in the 

a man came in silm En ? S at some P io °es, 
fitting ecclesiastical R arb ’ AlTh ’ d £ 6 ?f ed “ tight - 
seen the ‘'immortal .. i ° Ugh he had ne ver 
recognized him from his nicf 6 youth ^mediately 
say. looked at him with adm and needlef * to 
“Could you telEme if i ” ? 0n and curiosi ty- 
Liszt here?” inquired the vf i bUy ? me music by 
ing he was talking to a clerk. 01 "’ evidently think - 

your worksf'Maitre.” SUre y ° U Can find here most of 
“How do you know who I am’” 

Who would not know you. . . .” 

interlocutor wasV C ptaSst Zt heard that his 

pianist” as M. Philipp fokino-lv an “ a PPrentice 

terested and asked whh whom N he became m- 

“Georges Mathias Stephen Heller ^ ® tUdyln «- 
Saens.” p n He fi er , and now Saint- 

** “ 

in Prance! One of the ereni-o f he greatest musician 
How fortunate Z Z “l* '° M T. 

small favor: • • • • men he requested a 

»“"”:'SS'r e ! : SV* a f ™ *>» very 
traffic on these Paris streets r/ mUCh afraid of the 
be much obliged to you ” ’ * y ° U WlU do that 1 will 

While rwnpp .« om on th , emM M DlWffly 

the most recent PICTURP 

With his pupil, M. Maurice Dume ’ PHILIPP 

his mi^r S long th neck ar b^ f the firmam ent. in so doi 
But in his late, years there™ el ° ngated evL morp ? 

“re «h-ST ^™ ^Z 

and everything he did wl L zt was never an aP f * 
J«lr femi„„„ t / ha ' “ oZT' ™» *£ X 
of the man instead nf idolize merely tho ■ 
Playing.” ^ ° f a PPreciating the S Tun d of'g 

In 1886, thf ye^of^ 0 ^ 16 Artist 

" MVSK exalts 

chair. Two ladies were with him. “i an arm. 
minutes to give you. young man,” he said have five 
the ladies rose Instantly and took leave £ hereu Pon 
laughed: “That’s the way I get rid of annovm 

Rnf T have nlpnfv nf firm. v,... ‘OyiHg vislf^ 

emerged from his office at the back, and Liszt bought 
u 1 f.. E "^ at . c °ncerto, the three Nocturnes, and that 
brilliant piece: The Fountains of the Villa d'Este 
When I drove up in the cab,” M. Philipp recounts, 
Liszt came out of the store and asked in which direc- 

1 I aS 8 , 0ing ' When 1 mentioned the Avenue de 
Villiers he asked me to ride with him, as he was goin- 

klcsv 6 on m rt ,? 016 faMOUS Hungarian Painter Mun- 
kacs y on that same avenue. One can imagine what 
a thrilling experience that was for me” 

tZIZZZAAZ m hc r “"V ■«*- like? 

““ 6 ‘"- u ' *““ vo »ujf I get rid of annovin ““Wl: 
But I have plenty of Ume. You don’t hu! 8 visll ors 
the least/’ Ifowever, he preferred not to hea^ 11 
certo which the young virtuoso was to ni the c °n- 
lowing Sunday at the Concert -Colonn 3y the tQl ~ 
said, “It -is wrong for a composer to interE " N °‘” h 
Interpreter’s personality. Jast play it in ‘ with an 
and according to your own Ideas " m pw! Ur 0Wn % 
played for him his difficult Variations lpp ' lns tead' 
But what kind of a pianist W f n„u._ . . 
stein ... that fabulous musician uh 0 Ru bin- 

the light of a legendary character ivntT appears to 

ST * 1 ““ “ ,h ' '«“»*•'». IS k * 

"His technic, though extraordinary w*, „ . 
entirely clear. But the Are, the bmv.'.r. .u . alwa >s 
above all, the soul of hLs internJf!^;^ lfe ' an d 
breathlessly moved. One wonder, <i hdw ‘* ft one 
fingers were able to ploy witli , , ,, Sdeh ^Wntic 

black and the white keys You hould w the 
opening bars of the "Emperor” Conrerm 
paws descending mightily upon the krvixl 
Incomparable artist! Mathias con w, Whatan 
to Liszt, and Busoni said that anv ° RU P*rior 
Rubinstein and Uszt was t,. th. 'l r bctweei1 
I fully agree with him." disadvantage. 

Pllilipp fPCfll[«t An 

somehow Illustrate* the vanity of ^t b n”* 6 ^** Whl<:h 
and glamor In particular- A, „ “* Kenera l 

back to his hotel* with a few fn n f " R,K1lan walkt « 
historical rcitefs w-ilch',; ' ,flSt ° fhk 
sensation to t»SSi*„d a rt£, c “ ^ ? Cn0rmoas 
from the opposite dlrecfion , rdi‘ un hh" 
and exclaimed: "Rubinstein' \ P anns ’ 

Paris? What a pleasant surnr V you are 1,1 
to give any recitals?” Are you 8 0ln * 

livS oil' 1 the 'same" street °T‘'“ " nd L PhiIip P 
become acquainted * Onre i' Mat " rnlly they 


22 ^ 

right from Heaven ” Th'e,', ^ my b ° T: 

members nf „, en ‘ The*' Ootinod turned to the 

around him! ° rche - stn ‘ bad gathered 

of •BMthoven^T frlends ’ who work under the sign 

Is the creates i n\ m tcUlnR you: J'es. Beethoven 
latest. But . . . Mozart Is unique!” 

Tn loo Tchcrikov slcY VUils Paris 

Paris Edouard a !”°i VS * Cy Pald a Irngthy ^sit to 
evening party 10 °^°^’ th ° 00,1(1 " ctor - save an 
Varicap from m i?° n ° r ' M PhiUp P played the 
“Tchalkovskv Tn ? With Rfmy and Depart 
courteous thn.,^ V ^ ry k,nd * ext l uis bely polite and 
he savs -u„ gb always somewhat melancholy,” 
most unassnm?^ S P r °bably the most modest, the 
During his cfo ? 8 ° f a11 artists I have known, 
were given hv ^ , y a few Performances of his works 
y °n Meck i C fi °'°’ lne fi°r only one listener: Mme. 

She sat alone in” 13 ^^ tllese unusual presentations, 
remained t>ox whlI e the rest of the theater 
years Tchaikovsi- ** y '°* d and ln darkness. For two 
He held open tii/n a great fa vorite everywhere, 
were many 016 at th e Restaurant Maire and they 
abused— his hns>!!t e ... Who °fi ten came and used— or 
s °nal appearance 1891 he madc ^ onIy per ' 

Wore white kid 1 Co onne s. He did not use a baton. 
Poorly. Never thfq ° VeS ’ and altogether conducted very 
af ter this conrorNvf l 4 Was a huge success. Shortly 
that was fort 11 m. bereft Paris, never to return: and 
disfavor owine I c - sln °e his music gradually fell into 
whose dictum u° 10 stupld writings of a few critics 
and snobbish followed by the public, ignorant 
M Ph us ever.” 

when the youn i PadCrewskl at the time °f bis debut, 
unknown and u goIden - ha ired Pole arrived ln Paris 
veioped betw-po^ n ,!. eraIded ' A s °iid friendship soon de- 
Cen them - Then < Continued on Page 126) 


Music and Culture 

Sound Vocal Development 

A Conference with 

l^oAe J3ciyvipton 


Distinguished American Artist 
A Leading Soprano of the Metropolitan Opera 


Rose Bompton's successful career is all the more interesting 
in that she has had definite vocal difficulties to overcome. 
Born in Buffalo, New York, her singularly beautiful natural 
voice asserted itself when she was still a young child, and 
she began singing as a high soprano. After preliminary study 
in her native city, she was awarded a series of scholarships 
at the Curtis Institute, in Philadelphia, where she was en- 
couraged to develop her lower voice as a mezzo soprano. 
After beginning her career as a mezzo, Miss Bampton 
"changed” to a soprano. Actually, this change was no more 
than a return of her voice to its original state; and she had 
the courage to rebuild her voice after four eminently success- 
ful years as recitalist, radio star, and member of the Metro- 
politan Opera. Miss Bampton has sung in the leading music 
centers of Europe, has earned a command performance 
before the King of England, and has won spectacular acclaim 
in South America. In the following conference, she discusses 
her own vocal problems as a basis for her views on sound 
vocal development. — Editor’s Note. 

“TN THE difficult school of trial and error, I have 
learned that the most vital factor in vocal study 
is the proper placement of the voice. Now, this 
entire matter of voice placement is extremely difficult 
to define! Many young students have a tendency to 
confuse placement with determination of range. Actu- 
ally, the relation between the two is of a secondary 
nature. It would be safer, perhaps, to speak not of 
voice placement but of tone placement, for what is in- 
volved iri the process is (first) the finding of the best 
and most natural tones of the natural voice, and 
(later) the most natural and most effortless emission 
and resonance of these initial tones. In other words. 


the student must discover the place where his tones 
‘hang’ (or ‘sit’ or ‘fit’!) most freely. Upon this, then, 
the building of the complete voice, through all its 
tones in all registers of range, must be based. You will 
see, now, why I say that the question of range is al- 
ways a secondary one. In discovering which tones come 
first, most freely and most naturally, the natural char- 
acter of the voice asserts itself. But range, as such, is 
never the test. The natural character of the voice de- 


pends upon its inborn quality, its timbre. It is very 
possible that a soprano voice may encompass excellent 
low tones without forfeiting any of its natural soprano 

A Wise Counselor 

“My own experience was not an easy one. First of 
all, my development was slow. I have always sung, and 
my earliest, natural singing was that of a coloratura 
soprano. During those early years, I shot up quickly 
in stature — indeed, it was thought that I was entirely 
too tall to appear to advantage in opera! Then, when I 
was fortunate enough to receive my training at Curtis, 
I suddenly developed difficulty in singing; I was con- 
scious of fatigue, and I had entirely too many attacks 
of laryngitis. Looking back, now, I feel certain that 
this was in some way connected with my rapid growth 
and the purely physical adjustments of maturing and 
‘filling out’. At the time, however, I believed that a 
difficulty that asserted itself vocally must root in a 
vocal cause. The result was that I abandoned my 


higher register and continued my studies as a mezzo — 
in which capacity I made my first public appearance. 
And then, suddenly, I felt that I was making no 
progress. Deeply unhappy, I sought counsel of the late 
Albert Stoessel, who had given me my first opportunity 
to sing the Bach Mass, and whose personal kindliness 
and musical integrity made me feel that, if there were 
help for me, he could provide it. Mr. Stoessel’s first 
step was to say, ‘Well, Rose, maybe the trouble is that 
you have come to the top of your tree!’ At that I was 
crushed! ‘But that can’t be possible!’ I cried; ‘I’ve 
hardly made a beginning — there’s so much I want to 
learn and accomplish. This can’t be the end yet?’ He 
told me, then, that he wanted my reaction — had I ac- 
cepted his suggestion and been content with the con- 
certs and operatic engagements I already had, he would 
have given me up for lost! But my assurance that I 
wished to learn made things look different. 

The Importance of Study 

“At the suggestion of Mr. Stoessel, then, and after 
four years of public career, I went back to the begin- 
ning all over again, and began rebuilding my voice. 
This rebuilding consisted in a most thorough and de- 
tailed re-exploration of tone placement. I worked at 
scales, scales, and more scales, always beginning with 
my freest, most natural tones, and working up and 
down from them; matching tones for perfect even- 
ness; watching for flexibility, for forward resonance, 
for firm breath support. Through this insistent drill 
on scales, the upper register of my own ‘old’ voice 
came back. And when it did, all my difficulties van- 
ished. Singing was easy again! The least sensation of 
fatigue disappeared. Up to that time, in my public 
work as a mezzo, I had experienced definite tiredness 
after singing Amneris (except in the last act, where 
the part lies higher) , and I had never so much as 
ventured to attempt lower-lying roles, such as Azucena. 
Now all that was past and over. Through an intensive 
return to tone placement studies, I had found my way 
back to the soprano voice which nature evidently in- 
tended me to have. 

“But that is not the whole story! As I have said, I 
developed slowly, and it seems to be a characteristic 
of mine (for which I am thankful!) to accomplish 
best results through unhurried application. I have 
never stopped studying and I never shall; I take regu- 
lar singing lessons, and devote a certain period each 
year to the same intensive ‘study-work’ that I had to 
do while I was at school. Well, it happened that over a 
period of one or two seasons, my engagements mads 
this kind of work impossible. I missed it, of course, 
but kept telling myself that I’d find time for it soon. 
The result was that— whether because of lack of study. 

MARCH, 1947 



Music and Culture 

work h that er d P b n H a ^ e ° f the exbra * se vere schedule of 
toed physicX" voeTu ° f thC Study - J bepa ™ over- 
it told on my s’intrme y ’ A every way •' And - of course, 
sensations of fatigue But to/V be T gan to experience 
“Again I wen ft, ? ‘ thls time 1 k «ew what to do! 
building of mv wi^l ^ J h . e be S innin B. began the 

breathing, breach sunuort^^ time ’ and work ed at 

explore the voice as nothin*!? s ! lstameci notes which 
course scales This ti> r “ e ^ se can do — and, of 
through greater experienc? 0 ^® 0 * 6Ven harder because, 
the immeasurable tapSce of to^ 0 ” cons K cious of 
tone-placing drills Aston t of these voice-building, 

and with it a sensftoat nl° n ^ my Vocal estate 
long as there arp °j le need never despair as 

with which to » exercises 

it a'SrS'r. "Z experience, 

take off in talking to Ofh ^ nng ’ boarci from which to 
deep conviction that one nf^h^ smgers - 1 bave a 
facing young singers today is toe greatest hal 'dships 
which they can get out nr th th t apparent eas e with 
into careers! My notion o f to te / chers ' studi ° a and 
who would say 'Now look- h the ldeal teacher is one 

on condition tharyou nromfse 6 ' 1 build your voice 

from two to thre<? years sint-™ 6 t0 Spend any where 

and exercises; not a note more' to)t n a ° tbmg bUt SCaIes 

or Mother, or Uncle or Aunt- & SOng ’ for Pather 

in company-and not e vtn «’to k S 7 much as a Peep 

We know that the generatio^o^ 1 ° f & Contract! ’ 
veloped themselves along suc h SmgerS Who de “ 

sound vocal art well toro to } are mast ers of 
Giuseppe De Luca gave a vo .aPv sixties -when Mr. 
year, he smilingly Admitted thlt h recltal last 
Now, the generation of singers toL*!? sixty - nine -' 
less thorough and leisurel/Swon w de f Veloped in a 

itself equal to the same 1 bas not yet proven 

how they will sound at damands - We do not know 
th«., B “ » P-ow 

speed of motors and engines nnrt , accelera te the 
hurry the development oi a L f 1 f lanes ' you cannot 
its own time-and the human . ri bemg!Natureta k^ 
voice within it, is a work of nTt^^^ 111 the 
ers and ambitious young singer^ ,? Ce ’ Wlse teach- 

student masters vocal surety first and then enriches 
it with interpretative art. Certainly, it is the inter- 
pretative art which comes into first focus with the 
finished singer— but the student must approach it 
gradually. The first basis of vocal work must be that 
freedom and surety of emission which allows tones to 
‘sound.’ In most cases, I think, the natural voice of 
the developing young singer asserts itself naturally— 
children sing high and then, as they mature, the voice 
takes its proper place; the place, perhaps, in which 
one finds oneself humming around the house for one’s 
own amusement. It is upon the natural voice that de- 

velopment is built. Hence, find out the ^ 
your voice first Tthe place where it lies ^ pa h of 
it has the best quality), and work uu a „7 lest ' »he re 
there. Take care that emission is perfect ?° Wn fr o» 
out any sign of constriction or fatigue tv Iree ’ 
on your ’best’ or ’easiest’ vowel, but on al 1*51 prac % 
matching the less fluent ones with vou > S0Un <is 
•tricks,’ such as holding the head at an , Avoid 
forth. The test of the truly well-pi aced , nn g ‘ e ’ and so 
is always free and comfortable-hence In! “’ tha ‘ it 
meaning. When the basic development u, ^ a ° 
order, the voice will grow.” 1 « in soimj 

Treasured Influences 

o.'ZJrs, ,sL m f„r sre “ » ^ 

women. Tl,, itet “Sf ° r «» 

to London for the privilege 0 ? sin When 1 Went 
and learned that Mine Gerhard g g for the Kin &, 
I was actually S to p ^ livln S the ^ 

that idol of my student days thaTf FT S ° near 
courage to ask her to coach Ik™ 1 hardly had the 
gave me a beautiful grounding in % She did! She 
lesson every day for six weeks That We had a 
personal contact with the ereto ^ ,- Was my fi «t 
tradition. Never before had I he mp hcity of great 

had known Brahms R fc hard str. ” ear anyone who 

names that make musical historv^e ’ Nlkisch ’ and 
experience. 0ly - R was a memorable 

ces AlL^vTcMfy^he'wMreallT 3 ° f Mme ’ Pran - 
was to her that i went for J a llfesaver tor me. It 
after my seasons of overworking V °° aI rebulld ing, 
Alda taught me the significant nf L° V fu Stmin ’ Mme. 
had never realized it before- gave to th support as I 
Properly supported breath is tt. f, he thought th at 
works for you, that you lean on y & beUows that 
singing, that the throat has tb beII ows while 

“The third great woman + ^ ng to do wit h it! 

Lotte Lehmann. I wen ‘t t to j’’ . Ue f nCe me Wa * s Mme. 
learned, from her deep penetration f °i coac hing and 

and character of songs and ro^s to ^ the meald ng 
overcome aelf-consciotnefs ° nly way to 

sure knowledge. As long- as I th ° U n! 1 complet e and 
interpret this or that Dart’ r T' ‘ How shap / 
But once I had mastered m n C °i d not ac t freely 
that / did not enter the proceed^ ° f f ^ chara oter 
sole concern was to allow top i, ngS at alI ~when my 
““ ‘tawh my to rn«l hem 

ness vanished! fter ’ a11 sel f-conscious- 

n the whole, I am inclined to say that the wise 

Paderewski became the idol of millions, in Europe 
and America. Upon his return to Paris after some 
years of absence, they met again at a party and the 
following dialogue took place; 

“Oh, my dear Philipp. . . . why don't you come to 

OCC file ; 

frZ trange 2 Uestion ’ my good fNend. Isn’t the distance 

as from m h 61 !° my apartment exa etly the same 

tmiirtTnt 6nt t0 y0UT hotei? But the n ' orc 

mportant question 1S ; are you still the Paderewski 
of our youth?” ucrew sKi 

as !to, y : U ' aIWayS! " And Pade rewski proved it later 
Teachers WSS 

Pad rewsM sS ” V o U h wan 7 ^ the lines 

cert for your pmject.” ‘ m ® t0 giVe a beneflt cw ‘- 

replied; “bu^th^fi^re'^s^a 3 Pr ° phet '” M ' Ph iliPP 
is - - . three conceSl” lnad eurate. What I want 

three recitads.^They' ^produced’ th^/ 6 did g ‘ Ve the 
over three hundred 'thousand francs SUm ° f 

During his student vears in d ■ 
tended hundreds of concerts anri^ 5 ’ M ' Philipp at ' 
world would he have missed onp ^ nothin S in the 
Those famous symphonic aftprn oncert Pasdeloup. 

stiver drew large “ds despTte to 3t the Cirdue 

- Papa Pasdeloqp” who was , the med iocrity of 

f »«h»t ™cr P s„.£ m ' ho "“ u *^ 

Aspiring young artists in quest of Y ° r CVen talent - 
pearance found it difficult to 1 * f orc hestral ap- 
S'*™. br«,,„e 

Phfiipp, with a twinkle in hif pv P ‘ nannered - M. 
stance when none other than q y f’ recaIls one in- 
him a letter of introduction whictTh Sa ® nS had given 
a rehearsal of the orchestra Pasdeio? pre , sented after 
then said abruptly- “Hav B no , a,sdelou P glanced at it 
Monday at tenVthe^ ^ ££ 

m ^ Parl ° r ° f the conductor's home, where^he 

A Master Speaks of the Masters 

(Continued from Page 124) 

i't nt all feel in- 
was my turn to 

Responsibilities for Musiml r, 

Mus '. cnl Croups 

or isz-XSZSS; 


Dm, nmii , ecutlve Committee of the n *1 meeti ng 

HEREAS the membership 0 f the N r 

ei°n for UNESCO and n?£ 0naI c ommi S - 
mittee consists to a „ rp l Executive Com- 

resentatlves of instituttonLized "a ° f rep ' 

WHEREAS the Arts are very SD tl0n ' 

WHEREAS fee C a°rt to® 1011 ' an d arSe ’ y represep ted on 

speaks a Iang W ua^ n t ha ^ ic in Particular 
derstood among all natioi ^ 1V6rsaIIy hn- 

WHEREAs s SlSSSs o° n f ^ he UraIS 

S and reoord s music wm a D ] SOfradio - 

WHEREAS tol Pen f ablC part - and 

large r . of music has In the past played a 
ine i " the Promotion of understand- 

tioric ympatby and friendliness among na- 
ils infl and ' s capab le of greatly extending 

Whereas the v„?f nce ln thls respect, and 

utilini 1 pnal Music Council Is desirous of 
Is her K resourcea for this purpose, it 

p ESOLVED t S a [ J , 

aonoin* • 5 a ' St one of the five delegates 
at th P t0 D f ° rep resent the United States 
Nov P n,u Paris Conference of UNESCO in 
acauainf*^ 1946, shou l d be a person well 
Problem ed With music, with world musical 
of in S and "hth the unique possibilities 
presLes ^ ° f muslc ^r UNESCO’s ex- 
and S ee 1 P w, ^POse • “to contribute to peace 
amon<r to ty by Promoting collaboration 
nr, ence fni^® ? ation;i through education, sci- 

r ESOLVED, that m d cu ture ." and it Is hereby further 
National 11 ^® should be represented on the 
vidual ? oni misslon by additional indi- 
d organization members. 


applicant waited patiently for an hour . a 
Then he heard Madame Pasdeloup • lkw?V ^ 
. band: “Jules. . . Do you know ^S?. toherh “- 
is still waiting?” The answer »•„ L r !* f f Dlaa 
point; "Haven’t any time. Push him outi" and 10 016 
M. Philipp and Debussy, boll, born L 
fellow students at the Oonwrvaunn- He stiff ' Wert 
bers the boy with the dark curly h ur the hr em ' 
the black blouse of satin tied by h. it b own eyes - 
with the red tassel. However n„ ‘ 1 “• «*"» 

developed between them and eve, ln WvIi®”^ 
only met casually at concerts or .e i , !^to ** 
Supirieur of which both were m, 1 ^° r _ the Consei1 
during the war. Debuwy m.ked But ,n 1915 ’ 

and hear his newly written , rollmgu e to come 

IhandseemedXmS^S^deS ^ 

he played his ’Etudes for me * p ^ 
could hardly feel enthused al^ui. to !l i« P 
Plex and difficult U 1,1 ’ extrem ely com- 

!"»“““ UiranailtaL ..TO mil .f.Z!*? " 
ing. pained him considerably Per . ‘ fl ” t , hear ' 
some of my reserves when h. f,, p * he antl clpat«l 
times ask for things that one dir Publlshers 

is the r* 1 ®- SUCh 13 the Ule of 
d oA h bC “ me had come to leave, 
do a bit of reminiscing. 

those t wei ve” Etudes^ inaybe b W * n ‘ l ° pUy for you 
better. If not wlll ‘ by nou you'll like them 

(temporarily!) at th* r PUS,> mc out iUS y°u did once 
my Debussy ’excesses’ w hen you thought 

students?" orked havoc among my fellow 

a e ri M;iter ' s race: ,Tbat ' s 

servatolre dav. r ’ And slnce you recall Con- 

to you about that In Romc 1,1 teres ting tales to relate 
come again.’’ ' lustrious Institution, when you 

“Thank you Master r 

R'TbE will find v -„ r ' 1 am sur e the readers of The 
paling, and inspiring^' ^ ,0day « helpM 

ThWe « only one Philipp. ® 

jpUSICAL READINGS are quite different in 
[\/| their approach from other phases of musical 
IV JL art. In the first place, one must build in the 
imagination of the audience the picture which is pre- 
sented by the poem. This, then, must be accompanied 
by a musical setting so adapted to the verses that it 
never detracts from the poem, but really adds to its 
force or sentiment. 

"This is not the trifling matter which, some might 
think. The normal lilt of the words is of course the 
first consideration. In the first place, the composer 
must realize that the metrical rhythm of a poem often 
destroys its performing value. The ‘Dumpty, Dumpty, 
Dumpty, Dum!’ cut and dried metrical lines must be 
avoided first of all. One knows how the untutored 
child recites a poem, as though he were keeping time 
with a spoon on a table. What we must seek is the 
natural flow of thought, just as though one were con- 
versing with a friend. This brings a sincerity, natural- 
ness, and life to the reading so that the audience is 
stimulated by knowing you are enjoying what you are 
telling them. It must never be anything perfunctory. 
Therefore, the first consideration is the poem itself, 


the music making at all times an appropriate but in- 
conspicuous background of beauty, humor, or charm. It 
is astonishing how greatly music can bring out effects. 
Effects never must be forced. Even Wagner has been 
criticized at times for making his magnificent orches- 
trations so powerful that the text of the music drama 
is subjugated. 

“It is very simple for the novice to stumble into pit- 
falls. That is, he may memorize a poem, so that he can 
repeat it faultlessly, like an automaton. That is always 
a dangerous state because the great interpretative 
artist is not the one who sings or plays at people, but 
the one who has mastered the skill of getting the audi- 
ence to think with, him, as though the work were being 
given for the first time. Then there is an element of 
spontaneity and naturalness which is always captivat- 
ing. This may be partly a gift upon the part of the 
individual, but unless this gift is developed, he will al- 
ways remain a novice. For instance, he must become a 
master of the most subtle changes in the human voice, 
which is, after all, a fabulously responsive organ, so 
that he can have at his command a veritable palette 
of tones with which he paints human emotions. 

Develpp Individuality 

“One of the first tenets is this (which I have always 
impressed upon my pupils) , Never imitate your teacher 
— or anybody else, for that matter! Every student is 
different and must develop his own style and outlook. 
The reason why so many students fail is that they do 

MARCH, 1947 


Music and Culture 

How to Read to Music 


From a Conference with 

Well Known Composer. Pianist, and Diseuse 


Thousands of copies of Miss Peyeke's poems, set to music and intended for reading rather than singing, 
have been used with extraordinary success for years. Miss Peycke calls them "Poems that Sing and Music 
that Speaks." In the English concert halls and music halls they are known as "Musical Readings" or "Can- 
tillations." The famous singer, the late David Bispham and Nelson lllingsworth, two of Miss Peyeke's teachers, 
and also the late George Riddle gave musical readings a generation ago with huge success. Abroad, in 
many of the continental countries and in England, reading to music was extremely popular. Cissie Loftus, 
Yvette Guilbert, Albert Chevalier — artists not known for the superior quality,or power of their singing voices 
— made great successes through their elocutionary ability. Miss Peycke was born at Omaha, Nebraska, and 
attended St. Mary's School, an Episcopalian school for girls at Knoxville, Illinois. Later, she went to Chicago, 
where she studied at the Chicago Conservatory and at the American Conservatory. Her teacher in piano 
was Walter Perkins, and in theory, Adolf Weidig. Moving to California, she became the pupil in composition 
of Frederick Stevenson, formerly of Oxford, England. There she devised and composed her musical readings, 
of which one hundred and ten have been published, some meeting with extraordinary success. Among the most 
popular are Chums, I'm Glad fo See You, My Mother, The Annual Protest, Doughnutting Time, It's a Funny Old 
World, My House, What's in a Name, Spring Gardening, and The Christmas Spirit. Her compositions are found 
in the catalogs of nine publishing houses. On a world tour she found evidence of the universal appeal of 
this very human type of artistic entertainment. She has made innumerable appearances and has developed 
a histrionic presentation which she gives while accompanying herself at the piano. Her remarks, therefore, 
make her an authority upon this subject. — Editor's Note. 

not think for themselves, but like little monkeys, Imi- 
tate this or that person they have heard. The great 
artist is never an imitator. Like an artist, he experi- 
ments with color until he expresses in tonal coloring 
the pitch which the auditor understands and enjoys 
because it rings true. For instance, in the gamut of 
tones, the great variety offered is astonishing. Every 
tone undergoes a transformation as it is being uttered 
in the larynx and the vocal apparatus. In other words, 
this delicate but powerful machine, the human voice, is 
susceptible to almost countless mutations ..with in- 
finitely minute changes to suit the thought that is in 
your mind. This is reflected with lightning-like rapidity 
in the tone of the voice. There are tones which signify 
narration, reflection, anticipation, flirtation, realiza- 
tion, dejection, remorse, humor, victory, exultation, 
affection, encouragement, negation, affirmation, intro- 
spection, vanity, and an infinite number of mental and 
emotional reflexes, all necessary for interpretation. In 
other words, it is possible to express condition almost 
without words, as do some great mimics. The main 
thing is to get your correct tone color, as you see it, 
not as someone else sees it, with the thought you wish 
to express. Sometimes little children have this gift to a 
remarkable degree. The success of the little film actress, 
Margaret O’Brien, was due very largely to the amazing 
manner in which this child fitted her vocal tones and 
her facial expression into the thought desired. 

The Accompaniment 

"The poet sees so much more than he puts into 
rhythmic lines. That is, in addition to the meaning of 
the poem, there is a kind of inner meaning or con- 
notation which the student must seek to discover. The 
scenes and situations in a musical reading must be 
built so that they go in front of your mind’s eye, just 
as does a moving picture. 

“In the matter of accompaniment, one may either 
accompany one’s self, if one has had a musical training, 
or train a sympathetic, understanding, responsive, will- 
ing-to-work pianist. I have always accompanied my- 
self. Max Heinrich and Sir George Henschel, both great 
Lieder singers, always accompanied themselves at the 
keyboard. This is ideal if the reader has the proper skill. 
It is necessary to be able to look at the audience every 
moment, so that no facial expression will be lost. That 


is, the player must have a perfect sense of location of 
the keys, because if one looks down at the bass part 
of the keyboard, or in some other direction, it breaks 
the circuit with the audience, and draws attention to 
the .pianistic weak spots. Time and time again I have 
practiced in a dark room, to develop the sense of loca- 
tion and to bring out the proper aesthetic value of a 

“It is always a joy to give musical readings before 
bodies of young people, as their receptivity is a great 
stimulus. The imagination of youth is symbolic of 
youth. When we begin to lose our imaginations and our 
romance and our music and our love of life, we are 
entering the portals of old age, whether we be twenty- 
five or eighty-five. Musical readings make a dramatic, 
romantic, and humorous appeal to the imaginations of 
all, and therefore have a value which is both important 
and profitable to the -individual. I feel that I have a 
part in keeping many people young by giving them a 
finer understanding of what old age really is. I have 
just made a setting of a poem which runs: 


Age is a quality of mind! 

If you have left your dreams behind 
And hope is cold, 

If you no longer look ahead 
And your ambition’s fires are dead, 

Then— you are old! 

But if from Life you seek the best. 

And if in life you keep a zest 
And love in your heart you hold, 

No matter how the years go by. 

No matter how the birthdays fly. 

You are not old! 

You are not old! 

— Anonymous” 

The following list of musical readings has been used 
successfully by many teachers and artists: 

Aida Adapted Hipsher 

And Ruth Said (Sacred) yFergus 

Any Little Mark Hall 

Bill’s in Trouble Smith 

Canning and Preserving Hall 

Carmen Adapted by J. F. Cooke 

The Cat Wing 


Music and CuU..— 

A Child's Philosophy 

Christmas Eve 

Cuddles .... Peycke 

Cured Smith 

A Dear Little' Goose ; Adair 

The Delusion of Ghosts _ Halter 

Doughnutting Time Peycke 

Dressing Up Like Mother P( ! y . cke 

The Elf and the Dormouse. D Ad f 

Family Traits Oliver 

Food for Gossip 

Gossip Jones 

Grandmother’s Valentine 

Half an Inch Fergus 

He that DweUeth' (Sacred > 

How the Elephant got His Trunk Pergus ' 

. , a Senior 

Jus keep on keepin’ on 

Katy Did 


Little Chink 






• Wing 

The Lord is" My' Shepherd Ad “ Pted by J ' P ' Cooke 

Lost Fergus 


The Lost Ford Sherman 

The Loyalty of Men Jones 

Mary Hall 

Miss Nicotine Deppen 

The Morning Call Jones 

A Mortifying Mistake Peycke 

Mother’s Only Boy Wing 

The Movies Wing 

My Skates Peycke 

Never Say Die Peycke 

The Night after Christmas Peycke 

O Mary, go and call the Cattle Home Briggs 

Ol’ Man Conshunce Pease 

The Parade Wing 

Peer Gynt Arr. from Ibsen by J. F. Cooke 

Prayer for Jimmy Banks Peycke 

Predicaments Lieurance 

The Ravea Poe-Bergh 

® ashes Wing 

Spring Gardening Pevcke 


A Stray Letter 

Sunday Afternoon 


When I am Very Old 

Woes of a Boy . 

Popular Pianologues 







Twelve Tuneful Talking' Songs .' .' .' .' .' .' ' ' ' ’JJJJ 

tions and through personal response 
he will feel a phrase of his own aero?,? Under: 

Through circumstances that were ’ 
tunate I once studied the piano with Wmewhat unf„ P 
who could not even play the p,ano V,” old CL,' 
p ayed the Mozart violin sonatas together V eek ' 
of bowing came to me and Un« oascSv \ The *£ 
bow my piano playing. Technical Xr beg X 
corrected and I wasted much time as *** not 

me it was the beginning of musidaSwifS 1 ’ X 
discovered that I could use other S,^ cause Ihad 
development of my own. Further I LL ents the 
listen for other sounds than my own and i 0Rlpelled to 
an ensemble I gradually became awareL 3chie % 
most important of all-the music of NlLLarL- " ' Wa ' 

Art of Music a Life Study 

Musicianship is an awareness th.i 
hension and a sense of relative and LTflX w ‘“ pre - 
It is the reflective 'source „i a i! acthLX Values 
successful lawyer is not merely brilliant a J Uon A 

In a courtroom. He Is a student of COnvin( % 
events, of politics. At certain points his'L’ Z buman 
phasis is brought to bear on sjLciflc LsuC^* 1 em ' 
would be at a total Joas were it not tZ.' Sclentlsl 
ground of experiment and re- oarch And " . Vast ba <*- 
some who still believe that good ,i?„ d r Wtta,a » 

Rood iierformance is the 

' Was 


Avoid Musical Provincialism 

^ Sven jCeile 

Inevitable result of “taking lessons. 

The art of music is a life studv of varied 
No one can cope with all the nmhi# ^ Proportions. 
grasp ^e many sequent ® 

ZZr'™ mUMc -o U d do iel 'teL ® 1 ' 1 

sensitive to the oDDortuntn..,, .1 . el1 10 become 

accessible in ourTy ‘ “ re M «*»undant and 


in the Caching of piano we are 

board problems. So much w h f our . stude nts by key- assigned me all th S ' 1 T qmte overwhelmed when he 
tec from digital cahsthexScs toZZS™ “ tech ~ work. Being £^£2*“* Beetho ™ as my years 
“ * 0, “ w " 

The Background of a Good Perfn 

All too Often student d Perfor mance 

stcianship with performance 1 fC? ed to c °teuse mu- 

that good performance comes out Iff 01 ”! d ° they reaiize 

of playing experience and mml? a , arge background 

and contradictions A ZZ q f nfused by repetitions 
most problems by personal rorreT Can straighten out 
and a natural approach win T! ° n and sugges «on, 
cannot be ‘’master^ by a-Lt£d’> ' ° f that 

ment as a^elficteLLLmsicT 6 ™ 613 With our “stru- 
means to a deeper undem 3Siveness or ^ a 
advanced students of the niann in f music itself. Even 
are not generally ^interested TZ™?*? 0Ur schooIs 
quality of the music they pfav - - of music or th e 

PDA ~ — • Jr J • . 

Recognition for Army, Navy, and 
Marino Musicians 

T ! ( fn f n" 0 . W L ng ^ aoluU °te te'opted at the conven- 

the t 

ago when a piano studen^f \L WaS ’ s , tartled some time 

™ h, p „“ s s,;, r™ ,1“°"°“”“' 

Beethoven. This seemed nen„u th quartets of 

experience as he plaved flip 31 y ^consistent in his 

capably. Likewise, though perhans'le ^ flU6ntly and 

the instance of another niamL P V ^ sul 'P risin g, was 
“Carmen” and not a sdnLe f , Who knew not hing of 
he had no idea of ptSina ^ Pa,estrln a. Further, 
wrote and the period in whLh ZZ S ° rt of music he 
difference he passed the XtL off ^ With in - 
he probably should have remembered^” 8 S ° methlng 
once had a course in music hLtorJ Sm0e he had 

A Sound Principle 

and Practice TurtherearTIoLe 11 ° f ex P erien ce 

should be assumed It Zt Z , matters which are or 

* — 

tlon nf 11 ," V . adopted at tl 

held in Minmi m f r f an iteration of Musicians, 
the full and enthu / "h ,ht ’ past year ’ me€ts ’t 111 
fact we luive mn!I ; S , C npi,roval of The Etdbe. In 
matter a subtL^f me * dr termlned to make this 
so definitely ntid ° r 0< t °rlal dLscusdon. However, ltis 

that all of y the l?? Crelely cx > ,rev 'd In the following 
« an of the points are adequately covered. 

Obviously »h„ • 7 " llu< quateiy c< 
victory in modern u ' ° b -* ectlve of war is victor)’, but 
ah. the spirit th ” r S ac,lle ved In many ways. After 
ost ^±SL m Z Tale ot th <’ fighting forces is of 


professional ’cellist cannot ordinarifv “IT'' ° r cnat a 
speak with authority on the 2 1 b expected to 

there are certain musLaSly tail m f rigal But 

stcian and identify him as „ 'b* that quall fy the mu- 
versation some years a . Professional. 

virtuoso or that 

Sa Eve t0 Play them aI1 ’ 

attitude that to gaiu we are faced with t?’ S pred ' nical experiene. ^ f ,he highest order, requiring tech- 
he is a great arr p ei j. Gie seking plays Baeh u- ke a bsurd does not seem t d ? m . anding .wars of intense study. It 
vince a student 'thafth 0 ^ b ® a sim P le matter t^ 3 ^ 6 for ward to lndfvid uals cannot look 

because Giesek ni Z tke , reverse la true and th ^ COn ' ° ffi cer. Sociallv mIL hl ‘ ghcr ,h an that of Warrant 

great. It is hieh r 1138 tak en pains that he h tb u 1 11 ‘ s rank and have ’ n* 3 # y conie from families cf the front 

out the the Armv or Mo m 10 at ^ast a first lieutenancy in 

heutenant in tt/"^ 5 ' ° r t0 the ra,lk ° f a Junior grade 
Sousa received vft ^ avy - Lt Commander John Philip 
during World tv T commissior i in the Naval Reserve 

rol h Z Reso,uti ™ ‘ 

the dif- 

s ?s ss 5 « ». 

Although certain indefinabl ’ ° f 

affc™Sn“ r “ ,n '“‘“ah'” “tun 
Produce fluent LTtf” 4 WiU gradually and X h ° Urs a 
centration on the t ccepta ble piano plavine laevitabl y 

adopted at the Convention is 


survey nf „ — ’ y serv ’e 
y of Personalities 

casually, “As a Pianis“t, TLderstanL^^ ^ 
understand the music I ' d the pian ° but I 

-n- ««* «• * - 

constant oPwSmf “” r d » h»e 

“ram' “t »' »‘>™ng 0 r,„°! »'*!»“ 

e a sound nrlnetnio r ® n , ch peda g°g. once gave 

cimns Lf a m Xt . iS generalI .v agreed that the musi- 
fnr^°. fAmerlca who served in the armed forces 

winning of World War 

combat and cZ. m ° rale and fighting spirit 
the most trvi troops was maintained 

and rying conditions 

me a sound principle that T h,', P ag ° S ' once gav f 
Though , rmarkaWe pianur^'^r'S 


balance is best elemLn iS in sop gs t^i S te vol ved in 

'*«/C STUDY EX/iUTs 

».«r,buu, a to - 

2. Whereas Th 

no—. v . ' r no morale nnd flrrhtmc cr| irit of 


when there was music, 

2- Whereas ti, 

rine Corns Lmf me tebers of Army, Navy and Ma- 
militarv fnrr ds up ield the best traditions of our 
die rs, and CS 35 bandsmen and as combat sol- 

United State^A band leaders of the bands of The 
educated ta^L I I ny ’ dur ing World War II. were 
ni que of must ^ 3nd highly trained in the tech- 
and c and als « in tactical, administrative, 

executive duties 

tactical, administrative, 
( Continued on Page 166) 


Music and Culture 

The ’Cello— Virtuosity or Musicianship? 

A Conference with 

Joseph .Scl 116 ter 

Distinguished Russian ’Cellist 


Joseph Schuster, recognized as the foremost of our younger 
’cellists and one ot the great ’cellists of all time, was born In 
Constantinople, of Russian parentage. He comes of a thor- 
oughly musical background. His uncle was concertmaster of 
the Odessa Symphony Orchestra, and all fourteen of the 
uncle's children played. Mr. Schuster's immediate family was 
not lacking in a home orchestra, either. Young Joseph and his 
two sisters were taught the violin, piano, and 'cello, so that 
the home might have its own ensemble group! Since the girls 
had the violin and the piano, the 'cellollwas assigned to the 
boy simply because it was "left over"; it proved to be a 
wise assignment, however, for there exists between Mr. 
Schuster and his instrument that instinctive affinity which 
would have led him to it in any case. The boy soon gave 
promise of unusual ability. At seven he began serious studies, 
and at nine was already giving concerts. 

Mr. Schuster studied at the St. Petersburg Conservatory, and 
then {after the Russian Revolution) ot the Hochschule fur 
Musik, in Berlin. Just as young Schuster was ready for gradu- 
ation, Gregor Piatigorsky, then solo 'cellist of the Berlin Phil- 
harmonic under Furtwangler, resigned his post. Although 
dozens of experienced 'cellists applied for the covefed place, 
Schuster was chosen as Piatigorsky's successor. He remained 
in Berlin until 1934, when his ardent reactions against Nazism 
forced him to leave Germany. He came to this country and, 
the following year, was appointed as solo 'cellist of the New 
York Philharmonic, where he played as soloist under Tos- 
canini, Bruno Walter, Rodzinski, and other conductors of 
note. He retained this post until the demand for his appear- 
ances as recitalist compelled him to abandon orchestral work. 
As soloist, Mr. Schuster has rapidly soared to the forefront, 
both here and in South America. He is the first 'cellist to 
concertize in South America since Feuermann toured there 
some ten years ago. Since the local audiences were a bit out 
of the habit of hearing the 'cello, Mr. Schuster was engaged 
for eighteen concerts. Before he was allowed to leave, he 
had to give thirty-seven concerts. In Buenos Aires alone, he 
played seven concerts in ten days. When his tour finally 
ended, he was at once invited to return the next season. 
Despite the demands of his large coast-to-coast tours, Mr. 
Schuster always reserve! time for teaching, and conducts a 
special class during the summer months. He has an ardent 
conviction that it is part of the musical duty of the successful 
artist to hand on the torch of his knowledge and experience 
to the artists of tomorrow. Recently, four of Mr. Schuster's 
pupils have been appointed solo 'cellists to the symphonic 
organizations in Baltimore, Denver, Indianapolis, and Spo- 
kane. In the following conference, Mr. Schuster tells of the 
teaching methods which have brought about such remarkably 
successful resulfs. — Editor's Note. 

< « * S SOON as you begin talking about the ’cello, 

/\ you have to go into the reasons why this 
■4A magnificent musical instrument is still less 
‘popular’ than the violin or the piano. To my mind, 
these reasons reduce themselves to only one : the 'cello 
is less ‘popular’ than it deserves to be because there 
are not enough first-rate ’cello soloists to make the 
Instrument widely known and appreciated. We still 
need to build a public for the ’cello, and this cannot be 
achieved until a sufficient number of truly musical 
artist- ’cellists carry their work to the people and con- 
vince them of its merits. 

“The next question, obviously, is: why do not more 
young artists devote themselves to the ’cello and fill 
in this lack? I think I have the answer to this, too! 
The ’cello is an instrument that is so truly and purely 
musical that it demands the highest degree of sensi- 
tive musicianship: mere show, brilliance, and finger- 
virtuosity are not enough to .bring its best qualities 
from it. It is not even easy to be a mediocre ’ceilist — 
and enormously difficult to become a fine one. In both 
cases, the ease and the difficulty have nothing whatever 
to .do with the sort of showy equipment which, alas, 
can seem to lead (for a brief time, at least) to ‘sen- 
sational success’ on other instruments. The heart and 
the soul of ’cello study lie in earnest, devoted musician- 
ship — the expression of musical concepts rather than 
the superficial use of music as a means to demonstrate 
fleet fingers. 

“This whole question of finger demonstration is a 
matter of profound importance. Hardly a day passes 
when one does not read reviews of recitals that tell of 
highly developed technical equipment combined with 
an utter lack of musical utterance. When such critical 
blows fall, they strike the individual performer whose 
work is under review — but the fault is not his alone. 
Behind him there is a long list of culprits who have 
encouraged him to go before the public with an un- 
balanced equipment. His teacher is to blame, the 
manager who engages him is to blame, the advisers 
who applaud him are to blame, the public is to blame 
for having endured so many other technical demon- 
strators that one or two more seem harmless enough. 
Actually, of course, technical demonstration for its 
own sake is never harmless! It harms every one in 
the list I have just enumerated and, what is more 
important, it harms the cause of music. 

“My own approach to teaching is first to diagnose 
the individual needs of each student, and then to 
strengthen the points that seem weakest. When the 
student shows a lack of technical equipment, my task 
is comparatively simple. It is not difficult to analyze 
finger needs and strengthen them with the 
proper exercises. But when the student shows 
fine, fluent, fleet fingers and a lack of musi- 
cal thought, then the task becomes more 
complicated ! 

“If I had to select one problem as the 
greatest to beset the young student today, 

I should unhesitatingly choose his impa- 
tience to play difficult works and through 
them, to get into professional career chan- 
nels. I do not accept beginner-pupils, and 
I devote many auditions to discouraging less 
gifted aspirants from cherishing career- 
dreams. Thus I may say that my students 
are made up of the most musical of those 
who offer themselves. And even among them, 

I have time and again had to stop work 
to alter and correct approaches, both tech- 
nical and musical, which should have been 
set in order years before they attempted 
work on the sonatas and concerti they bring 
me. Somewhere in the very earliest founda- 
tions of music study, there must exist a lack 
of awareness of and devotion to matters of 
musical insight; otherwise the advanced 
student (not to speak of the young profes- 
sional ! ) would perceive the simple truth that 
his business is to make music; that music- 
making grows out of musical thought; that 
‘fingers’ are valuable only as a means of al- 
lowing musical thought to come to life, and 
never as a glittering goal in themselves. 

“At the Petersburg Conservatory, we were 
trained in music. Obviously, our fingers had 
to be developed to the point where they could 
serve our needs of musical expression — but 
the student who attempted to play technique 
alone, would have gotten into difficulties! 

We were made to steep ourselves in the 
musical thought of the works we learned. 

How? By analysis, by discussion of style, by learning 
how to listen, by playing as much chamber music as 
we possibly could and again discussing what was 
meant to be said, and why. Oddly enough, the em- 
phasis of the young student now is the perfection of 
his finger-technique. I get the question, ‘How shall 
I play this run?’ far more frequently than, ‘What shall 
I do to get at the deepest meaning?’ of a passage in 
which there is great inwardness of musical perception 
and no virtuosity at all! 

“My own system, then, is to balance the student’s 
natural strong points with the most thorough insis- 
tence possible on his weak one. And, of course, the 
technique which so mistakenly seems to many students 
to be the purpose of study, is the easiest to teach. I be- 
lieve in scales, and more scales — slow scales, fast scales, 
scales with various bowings ( legato , staccato, spiccato, 
detache, all kinds of bows) . The student who can mas- 
ter all scales in all bowings will have no difficulties 
with passages. I also advocate a thorough study of all 
the Romberg Concerti (not just one or two of them!) 
as exercises, to be mastered at the time of original 
learning, and to be used as ( Continued on Page 168) 

Wcngerow Pholo Studios 


Note the unusual stretch ai Mr. Schuster's left hand 

MARCH, 1947 




Music in the Homo 

A Rich Harvest of Records 

hff R e ^ er l\eed 

TEr" i - iss- 

Pro e peTe r q Tment r T dingS) ' WhiCh when heard °n 

-c£-~ ~r; s r^ 

trsz it ? 

date, have been th P aT, tle T ^ RR sets, heard to 
Orchestra performance 0 /”^ .° n PhiIha ™onic 

Ballet Suite, Decca set E m , ' Petr ° u *'"<* 

pany — Anatole Fistoulari T nns an Y the Moura L .vm- 

tra performance of the tA° n , Sym P hon y Orches- 

ances of the Stravinsky ne ° f the best P erf orm- 
Miss Lympany and Mr ' p/f °f *[ ecords to date, and 
Russian romanhcism an? d ° justice to the 

Khatchaturten wofk Perfnr? earty Wildness of ** 

Italian Symphony b v ° f Mendelssohn’s 

Symphony Orchestra and tbe National 

Overture No. 2 by Van Bplnnm e ®* hoven s Leonore 
Orchestra are interpretative? tnLTor 
mgs of the same works hv to the record- 

Among domestic orchestral re^oTri^ Toscanlni - 
NBC Symphony Orchesh-a v “! gS ’ the Tosc anini- 
J up iter Symphony, Victor set 1080°^ anC !i, Of Mozart ’ s 
ued reading of this great srnr P ’ offers the most val- 
of Toscanini is evidenced in th reC ° rdS ' The g “ius 
the outer movements and in t u° ISe and power of 

Boston Symphony disc nf ih 1 , T Koussevitzky- 
E-flat, K P lKtor n 9 3 |f - y M ° Zar ‘ S >^°"y 

in performance and leZ chfAf- SOmewhat inflated 
ments than it might have hY™ , LI “ lts outer move- 
fine recording of S an earlv overt ,' ^ f ne Welcome s this 
which dates from its coLl V tyPe 0f sym P b °ny 

Beccham-LondorPhnhTZm/or ^ 1 ? 1118 days ’ 

Beethoven’s Fourth Svmnl Orchestra s version of 

well recorded exarnpf /7 tho? Y ldtor set 1081 , is a 

tured music-making and if^nt ^ f onduct °r’s cul- 

as the Toscanini version is nonethYi y Pei ' SUasive 
Partner. s nonetheless a worthy 

TH^SSS Second and the 

set of the Pastoral Second by PWre T ently - The 
San Francisco Symphony Orchestra vt™* a ” d the 
is a performance in which taste on? tor set 1065 . 
well displayed; the distinguished ^ d ? usl . CIan shi p are 
reveals a surprising affinity with the n en ° h conduc tor 
mood of the music. This is definft ? eman romantic 
issue to the long admired Beecham one ™ competitive 
formance of the Brahma -ru- 7 a , m one - The new per- 
Philadelphia Orchestra CotolY ° rmandy and the 
tonally persuasive as the 642 ’ is not aa 

noi does one feel that the conduct u ^ sevitzky version, 
compatible to the score A W ° Ja *? et notionally 
most welcome, recording' V“ th ** ^ and henca 
harmonic-symphony Orchestra’s nprf Rodzmski - p Wl- 

Moussorgsky- Ravel Pictures at LTS ® 6 ° f the 
bla , s et 641. Ravel’s transcript?? 7 7'°"’ Colum - 
mustc remains unmatched and has ionY ? ousaor gsky’s 
as a more convincing score than th S b6en regardeci 
suite, which is far too mil? ® ongmaI Piano 
successfully written for the SZ? t not to ° 
i-ects the work cleanly and YithT Rodzinsk i di- 

the Same ° rchestra ’ Rodzinski has'also^ecordYd 


the F.fth Symphony of Prokofieff, Columbia set 661. 

y no means one of the composer’s greatest scores, 
wL has nonetheless eaugfit on in the concert 
“f curiously ambling one, somewhat 
fnA-he h tS ° slow movemen ts, but quite delightful 
finale. US scherso and the satirical dance-like 

Rad?° °l chestral recordings, recently issued by Pilot 
Radl °’ ° ffar “equal fare. Grieg’s Holberg Suite bv 

proves a sadly routine affair- the 
conductor plays the slow move- 
ment and the lovely final adagio 

httie°°e faSt a tempo and with 

httie expressive sensibility. An 
°M er set of this work by Sir 
Henry Woo d and the London 
Symphony Orchestra, Columbia 
Pj) ' ls greatly preferred. Both 
Y I ?°i le Sets are bu rdened by re- 
orded commentaries by Deems 
Taylor, which would have been 
better put in print. ° 

The Violin Concerto of Louis 

■a? rL h ,r; 

real, its emotional intensity 

ST ^s th P r tc r^ k r 


parodying a hiiilbil? Sail 1 
somewhat anticlamactic S ^ 
rs a definite shoTfTuTt^ 
who does full justice tn 

with Monteux^and the°San M? ° 
orsco Symphony proving a ? u 
ground. mg a “perb orchestral back- 

9an a n tW Rhaprod r y PC No dln 2! S our Ubiqui to US Hun- 



•dated arrangement by Mnei? perf °rmance, an in 

Spsssg ss 


the sTna k ta K in 0 riighte ° f 

legato playing which V6m and shows a mff ? Plays 

g wtah „ aMote% ,p " c “ ' « Mt 


■•musk study exalts lwe , 

finale. Neither pianist probes very f ar 
surface of the lovely slow movement ^“eath th e 
An enjoyable two-piano recording k n 
Robert and Gaby Casadesus playing Milk Pr ?, Vld ed by 
Martiniquai*, Columbia disc 71831 The ^ * Le B a | 
well integrated blend of sentiment and rhx??Y has a 
and the players savor it zestfully. yuun *c verve 

Among recent recordings tlie album 
mas Hymns and Carols sung bv th. Chris t- 
Chorale, under the expert direction of Rnh' Vlctor 
Victor set 1077, Is the most satisfactory^^ Sha "’. 
kind available; not since the albums of of ita 
Singers have we had anything of its t ? EngU *h 
didly done. The varied selection of ChH? 80 6pIea - 
and hymns has been well chosen and th*** carols 
ments are simple so that the spirit of e»7h arrange - 
preserved. eac “ Piece n 

Operatic fans will find much fn , 

highlights from Bizet's Carmen fe Victor ’S 

Swarthout. Victor set *1078. The ladv???' 8 Glad l' s 
tonally and dramatically wholly i)crsii^° rmance h 
supporting cast ls a generally ’ and 

ChUean u™,. n. 

dramatic voice being best employed ^ 

Robert Merrill Is a spirit^ Fscn ”, " nal due ‘ 
Albanese is a dependable Micaela T '° RCA vY™ 
Chorale, under the direction of Hobeit ?? lct0r 
major contrlbuUon to this well recorded It ’ 8 

In an album of excerpts from m 0 h r, 

Victor 1068, Llcla Albanese gives an inWH U “ erfly 
sympathetic account of the tragic . nn „ , 8ent and 
r» M 41 & noun, ,o, lu ,,,2'"^ 


c a 

tQ n, is cffectivekYnY^^u by A] banese and James Mel- 
the requisite feeline f’ Mlss Alb anese alone brings 
at his best, is curm,,c° the muslc : Mr. Melton, vocally 
With the aid of n I unern °tional for a bridegroom. 
Albanese gives Jf_° f d Suzuki - Lucielle Browning, Miss 
Duet. The final appeaIin g account of the Flower 
Farewell to ? rom the °P er a is Pinkerton's 

tricious aria at hns, ’ J \ Home in the last act, a mere- 
Me] ton. it seems a t nu U * { ? 15 sung indifferently by Mr. 
substituted. P y tba ^ Butterfly’s Death was not 

°f “La TraviaLv’^vkY 6 f J° m the end of the flrst act 
refinement; her sinef ° r ? isc 1 1 -9331 , reveals stylistic 
feeling and her v? 08 of . the Ah! fors’ e lui has true 
some others nonr.,!!? lib era. If not as brilliant as 
singer is 0 n e of the 6 eSS ha ~ s th e requisite lilt. The 
Violettas. most distinguished of present day 

The album of M 

set 643, reveals t h°J art ^ r,as Ezio Pinza Columbia 
There are two finY n ° ted basso voc ally at his best. 
Rigaro,” one le SS f fr0m “ The Marriage of 

the Seraglio,” , nown from ’’The Escape from 
len •'sung ^ Italian i° f noble In deisen heil'gen Hal- 
famous Catalogue nil f ° m " The Ma ^ Flute." the 
from ( Continued on Page 173) 


Music in the Home 

The Etude Music Lover’s Bookshelf 

Any book here 
reviewed may 
be secured from 
MAGAZINE at the 
price given on 
receipt of 
cosh or check. 

hj R *i Y! ere clith C^acL 


Cutting the Gordian Knot 

Gordius, King of Phyrgia, tied a knot in a thong 
connecting the pole of a chariot with the yoke. None 
was able to untie it, but Alexander the Great came 
along and severed the knot with his mighty sword. 
Thereafter, when one got rid of an obstacle by sum- 
mary measures, he was said to have cut the Gordian 

Your reviewer has had a Gordian knot facing him 
for months. The extreme paper shortage made it im- 
possible for him to give the space he would like to 
give to the great number of extremely worthy books 
that have poured upon him from the publishers. It 
is not fair to you, dear reader, nor to the publishers, 
nor to the authors of these books to delay any longer 
reviewing them. We therefore have covered several in 
this issue, with abbreviated comment. As more paper 
is procurable, the book comments in The Etude will 
be extended. 

“The Diaries of Tchaikovsky.” Translated from the 
Russian, with notes, by Wladimir Lakond. Pages, 365. 
$5.00. W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 

A most readable and valuable Insight into the in- 
timate thoughts of one of the greatest, yet most mys- 
terious, masters of Russia. Your reviewer found it 
especially absorbing. 

“J. S. Bach’s Musical Offering.” By Hans Theodore 
David. Pages, 189. $3.00. G. Schirmer, Inc. . 

When Father Bach visited Frederick the Great, the 
Prussian monarch improvised a theme on the clavier. 
Bach promised to write a fugue upon this theme. This 
he did, and sent it to Frederick, accompanied by the 
customary groveling letter and several other composi- 
tions. David’s erudite history, interpretation, and anal- 
ysis is a highly important contribution to musicology. 

“Gustav Mahler. Memories and Letters.” By Alma 
Mahler. Pages, 277. $5.00. The- Viking Press. 

An affectionate and comprehensive biography of the 
brilliant composer, by his widow. Those who have 
thought of him as pedantic, austere, and cold should 
read this book, filled with his rich and human ex- 
periences of interest to the average musical reader. 

“Listening to the Orchestra.” By Kitty Barne. Pages, 
298. $2.75. The Bobbs-Merrill Company. 

A highly lauded and well worked out series of essays 
and biographies tracing the development of orchestral 
music and the makers of orchestral music, so that the 
average person may readily grasp the main points in 
performance. Fifteen pages are devoted to American 
music and there is a thirty page list of the best records 
pertinent to the text. 

“Musical Instruments.” By Karl Geiringer. Pages, 278. 
$4.00. Oxford University Press. 

Twenty-five thousand years ago, Man, in the early 
Stone Age, cut his teeth on a bone which, when rubbed 
with a stick or by a rough surface, made a rasping 
noise. This, and one or two other devices, probably 
were the first musical instruments, and we find them 
duplicated in Latin American bands today. Dr. Geir- 
inger, Professor of the History and Theory of Music 
at Boston University College of Music, in a not too 
technical book, takes the reader from the instruments 
of the Stone Age right down to the present day sym- 
phony and the bizarre instruments of the modern 
“trick” orchestras. It makes a very interesting, easily 
comprehended story. 

“The Music of Tchaikovsky.” Edited by Gerald Abra- 
ham. Pages, 277. $3.75. W. W. Norton & Company. 
This is a series of highly informative and excellently 
presented essays upon the works of the great Russian 
master, by gifted writers, mostly English. Together, 
these essays form a distinguished and comprehensive 
treatment of Tchaikovsky’s works. In the list of vol- 
uminous compositions there are mentioned twelve 
literary volumes by Tchaikovsky, including transla- 
tions from French and Italian texts. 

“Serge Koussevitzky.” By Hugo Leichtentritt. Pages, 
199. $3.00. Harvard University Press. 

A splendid record of the man and his great work 

MARCH, 1947 

in America, by Harvard’s famous musicologist. Par- 
ticularly noteworthy are Mr. Koussevitzky’s valuable 
detailed notes on the performances of the works of 
American composers, to which he has always given 
primary recognition. This feature of the book, in itself, 
should have great appeal to the music lover. 

“Listen to the Mocking Words.” Compiled by David 
Ewen. Pages, 160. Price, $2.00. Publisher, Arco Pub- 
lishing Co. 

A series of fresh musical anecdotes and humorous 
comments upon music certain to entertain many. The 
book is cleverly illustrated by A. Birnbaum. 

“Legend of a Musical City.” By Max Graf. Pages, 302. 
$3.00. Philosophical Library. 

A “lovely” story of one of the “loveliest” cities in the 
world, by a really great historian who has known many 
of the characters he writes about and who writes about 

Courtyard of an Old Viennese Commoner’s House 
From “Legend of a Musical City" 


them with an eloquent pen. Reading this book, one 
forgets all about the Europe of murder and misery of 
Nazi days, and is carried back to the banks of the 
Danube, and the fairy world of the land of Mozart, 
Haydn, Beethoven, and Brahms. One delightful bit 
has to do with the visits of Debussy, Ravel, and Mas- 
senet to Vienna. 

“Giuseppe Verdi. His Life and Works.’’ By Francis Toye. 

Pages, 428. $5.00. Alfred A. Knopf. 

Far and away the most comprehensive and detailed 
life of the Italian master, written charmingly and sym- 
pathetically by the famous English critic. After an en- 
gaging life of Verdi, the writer discusses at length all 
of his major works. 

“Manual of Functional Harmony.” By Samuel A. 

Lieberson. Pages, 167. $3.50. Warren F. Lewis. 

An unusually clear and workable harmony with ex- 
cellent worked out problems and a fine key to 216 
exercises. It is a book to delight both teachers and 

“Make Way For Music.” By Syd Skolsky. Pages, 138. 

$2.50. E. P. Dutton & Company, Inc. 

Miss Skolsky has a smart manner of digging up in- 
teresting facts and making her comments upon the 
development of music unusually pleasing. The second 
half of the book is devoted to excellently annotated 
program notes on outstanding recordings of famous 

“Music in Medicine.” By Sidney Licht, M.D. Pages, 

132. $3.00. New England Conservatory. 

The most illuminating and readily understood book 
upon the subject we have yet seen. The author, a Fel- 
low of the New York Academy of Medicine, has a fine 
literary style, musical knowledge, and a familiarity 
with the subject which give this book both authority 
and popular interest. 

“Music in Radio Broadcasting.” By Gilbert Chase. 

Pages, 152. Price, $1.75. Publisher, McGraw-Hill Book 

Company, Inc. 

The NBC-Columbia University Broadcasting Series, 
designed to include ten volumes, is an indication of 
the very thorough manner in which the broadcasting 
companies and the educational interests of our country 
are united. Dr. Chase, who is Instructor in Music for 
Radio at Columbia University, has assembled a series 
of chapters by top-ranking experts, such as Thomas 
H. Belviso, Tom Bennett, Frank J Black, Samuel 
Chotzinoff, Edwin L. Dunham, Herbert Graf, David 
Hall, Ernest La Prade, Morris Mamorsky. The work is 
based upon a fifteen-week course given by Dr. Chase 
at Columbia University. 


Music and Stud y 

Again, Thai Trick Rhythm 


My fellow round tablers, 

Here we are again, and judging bv the 
number °f distressed letters coming in 
and calling for help, we may have to 
°* a f speclal oversize table to accom- 
modate the crowds who want to sit in 
on our discussion of this “problem of the 
hour, even if their complaints remain 
inarticulate and hidden deep “ 

inklTng of S i. HaCl Ch ° Pin had the lightest 

inkling of the misery which his Fantasie 
Impromptu would inflict on students a 
century later, lt is possible that a feeling 
of anticipated commiseration would have 

histea P d nf I” to deStr ° y this com Position 
instead of keeping it on file and awav 

- tha? ^ PUblLshei: ’ s hands. Why he did 

mySt6ry - Ifc See ™ hardly 
possible that he could have found it un- 
worthy of publication, for when it was 

rSdlST 11 •» unanimous^ 

manHo d ^ &S a Very charming, ro- 
mantic, and inspired piece of music 
Moreover it has exceptional pedZohn 
value: development of fleet Angers a C ' 
“Vising, singing tone, fnd’ last 

the thlpTT Van ? Uishing th ®t bete noire, 
tnice against four trick rhvthm t 

The Teacher’s Hound 'Table 

Conducted by 


Therefore, I n m tokl 

older children's first n? Upon myself 

are mterf ... I p “>no train, l? 1 ' 

'aurice oUumcini 

Eminent French-American 
Pianist, Conductor, Lecturer, 
and Teacher 

are rated 'high* • T'q lining 'a®* 
Ods-E. a: S„ Mtchlgan. 0 " mod “Cet,!! 

?„°,Z esponicnts with th{ * depart- 
f n t %, ar f, re ‘l u ested to limit letters 
to One Hundred and Fifty Words. 

®~ , 2p « 


degree of ease and finish S ? with any 
the rhythm two to three a littl te ? chin S 
Why don’t he come' seems h ^ ph ™ se: 
do not know any to beta i But 1 

Can you suggest L ” heIp th ree to four, 
pupil?” ggeSt SOme wa V of helping this 

A nd .‘his from Mrs. L. D 
In the little town where ! m h ,T a : 
are many children ere . Ive there 

the study of mus"e tLV”’ '? terested in 
tare in teehnS ^ong^Rem ® ? C ” 
was shown at one °° n Remember' 
of my advanced gfris asked ^ ters ' Th «e 
opportunity of learning to be glven Ule 
in this show SoTsJ,,^ music play ed 
Piano music by Frederic rh an aIbum of 

for the average pfanTst ™° Pm ’ arrange d 
this album are com? *' J he numbers in 
dents with a nice nn 5,l h ( rough the stu- 
Fantasie Impromptu ^ d ® rstan dmg, except 
the best of my ability T e 2 plained to 
over and over y but hi' ? ayed measures 
find it so difficult to n,/ .i ent Seems to 

ssr^ - "wt s t rr^ 

reTedy° U pa 0 UenJe re fo°r m T end the eternal 
to acquire “ease ’nd V ?,f y take 

ume III rnnfoin, flayers Hook, Vol- 

exercises” (see Page 

such as the one ‘ A hort Phrase 

helnfiii tt,,,. . nient ioned often proves 

use a LT ° 18 a su S§ es tion; why not 
use a little jingle, for instance! 

Ihis is the way 
Now it’s O. K !” 

“I play this right. 

A m I not bright!” 

wm Sg'varSty” 1 "^ “ P “ y ° U g0 ’ and 

S vanety and renewed interest 


This method, however, cannot apply to 

n5es ts S tnn S f f T’ f ° r the placeme “t of 
dorse the ‘. r a i ° naI - And 1 cannot en- 

t always pays in the end. Here is a Tvs' 
Sonf °and haVe indicated ™ various oc- 
havebeenexceTlent teaSt0itS e ® Ciency 

keeping strictly obedient to th 0 d 7®’ 
nome beats: 1 to the metro- 

aT follows , iS the addition of a few notes, 

Ex. 2 

rhythms^v^gottenin^ that the two 

Important note: smoothness may be lack- 
ing at first, but don’t give up for lt 
will come gradually. This problem has as 
much to do with the mind and the ear... 
as it has with the fingers. But It always 
yields to Perseverance. And now In coni 
trast to dry technicalities, let me relate 
what I once overheard In connection with 

nlhZ tl lmprom P (u «nd the picture 
m which it is used: 

S , dmmer as 1 motored through the 

to 1 stopped at a restaurnnt 
for a short order.” A movie was m t 
over at the “Bijou Theater” nex? doL 
snd a family came in* Pnnn *r 
sister, anu Jung,,. Thv 

b^”. the splendors of "A Song tn Rcmem? 

e«ss? Jm i 0 r n ' a “ «> » «- 


™ csUXZSZ 

dandy staff,- cut-in p^pe sn t 10 wrltc 
and added: Bapa ' Stst er nodded 

Play swell?” ButThtoT' And dldn,t he 
Play his eruditioL: “ 10r "' anted to d ‘=- 

fellmy 7 called Eye-to-hv^T Playin S- A 
somep’n.” ^hbbed in or 

I left. But it dawned'Tmn ^ ° VCr ’ and 

ever way they put n - that What ‘ 

come aware that a centnrv mlly had h 6 ' 

musician whose name T a 

m lived and coninLoli 1 Pre deri c chop- 
day. Perhaps, thch mTs^T' 800,6 fulu m 
^ lU g row, stimulateT bv h aPPreCiation 
counter with the by th,s first en- 
ter’s genius of the mS- 

Phed in the thousanrif happen - multi- 
he, then the producers TAV 1 may Wel1 

Ex. 3 

Your letter confuses me pi 
speak of “small children.” the„ Prs yo “ 
non two. ages seven and five a n rt ° U men - 
finally you write about "rvi and a half; 
So which Is which, who’s whn Children ” 
what? However, in . pit e of Whatis 
I will endeavor to help W^ 1 ***!? 
luck that I hit on the rlS TJ 
problem. " 1 Phase of your 

a favorable M -h„ ■ , dl ren Wesuch 
think that you are cquipS’ “ e 
of Us solution. There .re m takecare 
who. like li i. Vf . ? y others 
and find It difficult to reach thT’-hf 5 ^ 
BUI is this necew.y? Tv*;. ^ gCity " 
arc not at all neeiLi r Pe S? t€achers 
fact. I doubt if any of thLSw? 1 fa 
students „f the first grades Hu ^ 
Possible to find. In one', viclJ ty JS 

tra nlnT nf y ° U ‘' c,,lldren ' 8 P«liminan 
j3S*J*C n y ° Ur ' lf ' Thc important 
KcinieTf Ur, ‘ lhat acquire good 
m. P frOM1 lhc st «rt: then when thc 
rhrif ? CS, u to cn ‘rust them to a spe- 
wm^ °l. thC h ‘ 8hcr gr “des, he or she 
off | Wb ° 10 talCL ' over where you leave 
° ,1 a ° d foutmue building on the sound 
m .. a 0° already laid. As to “modem 
methods I could i>erhups say that there 
C n„ P , 6 V,^* y "tiotlilng new under the 
n. kii ’ a nutnber of works have been 
. published In recent years, which combine 
giiiuity with efficiency. Some are de- 
sed for individual or group instruction 
d contain pictures and words as well 
as explanations and occasionally a par; 
for duet playing with thc teacher. Here 
a " a few title, which you will find worth- 
mie to investigate: Bilbro, “First Grade 
«ook for the Pianoforte;" John M. Wil- 
,, ams ; "Hirst Year at the Piano:” Presser. 
Music Play for Every Day;” Myra Adler 
ringer Pun;" Robert Nolan Kerr, “Little 
ayers;" Louise Robyn, “Technic Tales. 
Hook I; Ada Richter, “My Piano Book,” 
“Ugh Arnold. “The Child's Czerny:” 

s ii'l Ramsay, “Plowerettes;” Anita C. 
ilbbits, “Two Very First Pieces” (with 
words). And please do not forget these 
most dependable, long tested stand-bys: 

. ucodorc Prcsser’s "School for the Piano- 
forte." and W. S. B. Mathews' "Standard 
traded Course.” both Volume I; for they 
■>rc the outgrowth of many years of ex- 
perience in teaching children and cannot 
too highly recommended where serious 
youngsters are concerned 

and studipd „_' nored in theory who. 

1 have don,°? an and ‘mnipet^ otoK Plano -n * * • 

hJrz chm in ° ur c ° un,ry sh 

a ehur,h — g a "d for a <ear n how to sing, and how to play i 

a least one musical instrument. An 
t tese the piano is perhaps the most p 
cal for musical cultural purposes. N< 
self Sh ° Uld crowd out thc opportunit i 

nitle voino ' , L a auit Diann : V ae. 

' vas a church 'or"® and for severato 8 ' 3 

begin formal „ ganis t. I woidd ,-, years 

S ST; ■« 


MVSK study 

. W. UUL L/ie UJjJJUl C Ur ! /*■ 

/-expression which can come to those 
, 10 the piano with some degree oi 
mastery." — WAL TE R DAMROSCH 


Music and Study 

Selling “Music” to the General Public 

R ECOGNITION of correct public relations as a 
necessary corollary in the presentation of music 
• to the public has been widely neglected in small 
musical groups. The result has been loss of a great 
potential audience. Large musical groups, well-known 
soloists, established opera companies— in fact, any mu- 
sical artist or organization whose success was achieved 
by public patronage acknowledges the importance of 
press coverage. Professional publicists are employed by 
these artists or their managers for the specific purpose 
of dealing with the press. Yet recitals and musical 
programs, concerts and even opera and light opera’ per- 
formances presented by teachers and their pupils or 
by civic or amateur groups receive only a small part of 
the notice they both need and should attract, because 
they have not given the press material which can be 

The following is an outline of a good course of basic 
practical procedure designed to do just what the title 
indicates : sell music to the general public, your public. 

Publicity for a Recital 

Let us suppose you are a teacher of piano whose 
pupils are going to present a recital, and that an audi- 
ence composed of more than friends and relatives is 
desired. The hall has been engaged and drafting of 
the program is finished. Two weeks before the recital 
you may well begin to place your publicity. 

First comes the news story. A cardinal rule in jour- 
nalism directs you to place in the first paragraph of 
this story, undecorated with what you think of the 
occasion or your pupils’ ability, a statement of who, 
what, when, where, how. In other words, “The pupils 
of Amelia Wright will present their . . annual or 
whatever the usual routine may be . . . “program of 
piano music in a recital at Woodland Hall, beginning 
at 8:15 P. M. on December 1.” Next mention the news- 
worthy elements in the story. You may say, “The 
youngest child appearing on the program is Sally 
Brown, age four, 1312 Park Lane, who will play a group 
of specially arranged folk melodies. Jack Smith, age 
twelve, 312 Elm Grove, will play his original composi- 
tion titled The Swallow in its premiere presentation. A 
group of Chopin Waltzes, seldom heard on student 
recitals, will comprise the portion of the program 
featuring Marie Jones, age fourteen, 420 Green Road, 
one of the advanced students.” 

Feature Angles of the Story 

Going on with the news story, “The work of Amelia 
Wright has been known in the musical circles of Wood- 
land for ten years. Her career, beginning under the 
distinguished tutelage of . . the most eminent of 
your teachers . . . “includes performances with . . 
whatever noteworthy appearances you might have 
made. “During her teaching career she has furthered 
the talents of . . those pupils who have achieved 
distinction. Attach a copy of the program to the news 

In addition to the initial giving of vital information, 
these things must be observed : Give ages and addresses 
in the news story, except where obviously it is inad- 
visable, such as with the teacher or adult pupils who 
might object to such disclosures; do not editorialize 
or eulogize, because the editor will blue-pencil such 
words except in some of the less discriminating small 
newspapers: do not make the story too long because 
it will be cut ruthlessly where otherwise you may have 
gotten it printed intact. 

Now we go on to feature angles of the story. Out- 
standing is Jack Smith and his original composition. 
You may call the feature editor or the picture editor 
of the paper and suggest a photograph of Jack with 
staffed paper and pencil composing his The Swallow 
at his piano. 

If there is more than one paper in your town, re- 
member that while you may send the same news story 

to all papers, you must 
not submit feature or 
picture possibilities si- 
multaneously. Violation 
of this unwritten rule 
has cost many amateur 
and professional publi- 
cists a great deal of news- 
print. News is admitted 
common property in this 
case, but not features. 

After you have placed 
any feature stories and 
pre-performance pic- 
ture?, again call the pic- 
ture editor and suggest 
covet age of the recital 
by both reporter and 
photographer. Many 
charming criticisms have 
been written by report- 
ers in the manner of 
authorized critics. Be 
sure, before you invite a’ 
critic that you want him 
to give a professional 
printed opinion. Because 
pictures and space are 
equally scarce and valu- 
able in a newspaper, do 
not present all of your 
ideas to an editor at 
once, allowing him to 
choose from them. One 
small carefully selected 
and presented piece at a 
time is the best insur- 
ance’ against blanket re- 

The society angle is 
also an important fac- 
tor in publicity. Are any 
of your pupils the chil- 
dren of socially promi- 
nent people? If so, call the society editor of the paper 
and suggest that she might be interested in a charming 
photograph of young Peter Cortlandt practicing dili- 
gently for the recital under his mother’s fashionable 
eye in their music room. 

Is one of your pupils the child of a locally well known, 
if not celebrated, musician or other public personage? 
You might suggest a picture of the child with his par- 
ent or relative, and a story showing their parallel or 
opposite tastes, especially if it is the child’s first ap- 
pearance before the public. 

Cooperation From the Press 

By all means make every effort to see that the news 
releases are typewritten, with spelling, punctuation, 
and grammar correct. And do take time to bring them, 
personally, to the correct person because it helps in- 
sure publication. 

Ask the newspapers about the dates of their dead- 
lines, a deadline being the latest time at which a 
publication will accept material for a given issue. Fea- 
ture and special sections sometimes deadline days 
ahead. of their news sections. And find out when the 
weekly publications in your area have their deadlines. 
Weeklies and labor papers are important mediums and, 
as a rule, both are cooperative toward musical en- 

In other words, while you are yourself interested 
primarily in the proper presentation of your pupil’s 
music, remember that the press is interested in a 
totally different manner. You, in desiring cooperation 
from the press, must meet it halfway by considering 
everything of possible news or picture value and pre- 

senting this information 
in a usable form. The 
dividends, of course, 
come in wide coverage 
which will make people 
aware of your musical 
venture and increase at- 
tendance. This outline of 
story sequence applies 
generally to any pre- 
sentation of music. 

From long experience 
on both sides of newspa- 
per and magazine desks, 
as a newspaper reporter 
and magazine editor, and 
in placing stories as a 
public relations woman, 
I advance a few em- 
phatic don’ts. 

If a newspaper mis- 
spells names in your 
story, don’t telephone the 
office and berate the edi- 
tors. Try to understand 
that these people know 
how important names 
and titles are to their 
owners and friends, and 
make every effort to have 
them correctly stated. 
But errors do sometimes 
creep in and a linotypist 
is not infallible. Still, 
should you feel it abso- 
lutely necessary to call 
attention to the error, 
do it courteously and ac- 
cept the paper’s apology 
in good faith. Above all, 
take the matter up with 
the person who handled 
the story, not with the 
managing editor or the 
publisher. The good will of a newspaper staff is too 
immensely valuable to you to sacrifice it to your irri- 

Another don’t : Don’t take up the time of newspaper 
people, who are tyrannized by deadlines, with flounder- 
ing or irrelevant details. Whether you are being inter-, 
viewed or whether you are placing a story you wrote, 
have your relevant details in hand and advance them 
clearly and concisely. Don’t attempt to impress these 
people who may have just finished interviewing cele- 
brated artists. You will find them generally kind and 
intelligent, and you will have their respect if you deal 
with them on a perfectly honest basis. On the other 
hand, don’t unsell your product, which is music and 
important, by a timid or apologetic approach. 


Don’t allow a photographer to direct you to pose in a 
technically wrong position. If your hands must hold 
your instrument in a certain way, tell him so quietly. 
He will understand and thank you, because he is a 
photographer, not a musician, and may not have known 
certain facts. But again, remember that the camera 
angle distorts certain positions, and that what might 
appear a cramped position will look quite all right on 
a photograph. 

Don’t be affronted when a photographer suggests a 
pose that may seem slightly undignified to you. I saw 
Serge Koussevitzky, conductor of the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra, express approval by a forefinger touching 
thumb gesture for a photographer, appealing to a 
newspaper audience. And two weeks later I heard the 
conductor of a small and ( Continued on Page 172) 


MARCH, 1947 

Music and Study 

Interpretations in Jazz 


-4 Conference with 

o^ule £*llinc^ton 

Renowned American Composer, 
Pianist and Band Leader 

SF, ' mF “ CX " RESSLr ™ ™ By emKM ASKLVNb 

of his melodies does not "dJl ■■ |oa N lt ’ ,om ond recognized in th. . boton ^ has *o his credit 

t C" ~ x IF '-X‘ vx t - ?,/■■ ■ ttXsx 

'» *933. Ellington "toured Errnl** T' ^ °° ^ ^ ^-^wo^^oLdT'T 6 ^ 

modern concerts ratherthon "^ ""j 1 +he “>"«"«"* with se nsatio„ , , . ” ^ Cof ' 

In° I a 94 y 3, a h n e d g^TtVTt^ "ZTJo B t S T" C °" iW "‘ d 

W-2& ■«?«!: 

j^ , T 3 ^i^sad."ssFS'- 

Award. Recently Mr cm* * . ^ sc ? u »re Magazine Gold M ^ i e . e ° r ated musicians Hp k ^ Ue bearing the 

“ ’"• ■■“'"“«•• “-™». M-. sCirSitr*/ 4^1 

coders Of The Etude, h; s v ;"™ 
Editor's Note. 

If Y . 

I AZZ today i s no longer the ia^ + 

I ago. When I began my work LF tWenty years 
J something ‘different’ Nnf ’ Jazz Was a st unt— 
jazz, and those who did fe^tL^ 3 * 0 ^ cared for 
thing’ unless they were given hi T"’* ‘ the real 

loudness or unpredictability ,i„„ a sbock sensation of 
that reason, I fee i that I was extrem f music ’ Por 
the picture when I did' I had tF r !? lucky to en ter 
music; I relied on instinct rather^? 11 “ yself to «a«j 
guide me; and had to apvoi lan ^ now ledge to 
spotlight positions. When I technl Ques in 

SS T 1 S 1,1“ f™« »* c Mta 

three days at a theater in I/h I be engage d for 
and on the third day, they toto ™ ^ Went well, 
open at the Palace Theatel /L was scheduled to 
days the Palace was the roun^™^ Now in those 
theater, the goal of every seasoned f nklng vaudeville 
pletely bewildered by the to P ayer ‘ 1 Was com- 

«° special preparation-but I had £»££” 

as -sr * — >*. .. » 

ui a jc&iuu aiiu Jioi 01 a Cau.SC T 
simply, the expression of an age m IF mJnd - Ja» 
the terms classical music, romantic 
picture comes to mind-a picture ,^ lc ’ A n entfc 

Uiic LC-IHU, Classical music, romantic ' Tb 
picture comes to mind-a picture of ^ en 
thought and felt; an expression A the w »y Den.? 
to the conditions under which they UvS? 1 
dream of associating a certain rhythm „ ° U W °«C 
quality with either of them. Jazz is ex ' * flxed 2 

not in its forms, of course, but hi the y the sa meJ 
pattern of its expression. Just as the ,V^ Se - ov »- 

a iaj vi course, t>i 

pattern of its expression. Just as the"*."!**’ 0Ve r-ali 
resents strict adherence to a structL w C forn > ten. 
as romantic music represents a rdlnfl andard ; Jal 
forms in favor of more personal utlerane aeaitlst fi 
tinues the pattern of barrier- bre-tkm • so J a « coj 
the freest musical expression Te Z?t f mer ^ 

tne freest musical expression we h... emer gas a 
me. then. Jazz means simply freedom i F yet seen - T< 
And it is precisely because of this r,^ ea!speechl 
many varied forms of Jazz exist T e . d ° m tha t so 
to remember, however, l , that no^LT/‘ ant 
represents Jazz by itself. J azz means slmn, he3e for ® 
dom to have many forms I imply f ree . 

The Hem ents of Lucfe 

^mouncc 1 my^ “ WOU,d ba 

the foothghts, trusting to Provide° Ped / ny Way toward 

my mouth at the right m° e to pUt the ri 6ht 
praised for a new style nf Sht moment - After, X was 
idea what kind of “stvie" il announ cing! i i lave , ln 

sonlf lift6d a baton was whin'll^ h ’ the flrst ««« 

sonal appearance opening of I j c onducted the p er - 

1 had n ° idea what to do Maurice Chevalier Again 
indeed, to beeto «£ 1 -X' 

But perhaps I should 

duke Ellington 

many ktodslf In openin « the way fo 

*y American. Thu, 11 1 expres sion. jazz is peculiar 
derives simply / rom ’ 1f „ f ^ erlc an character of jaz 
specifically Ameri^.l? edom rather ‘ h “n from anj 
case of other lands u- . ’ muslca * descent. In the 
^rwich, or Italian or theJr mus ic is 'tj-plcally' 

tional pattern (whether n ? tsh ’ if 11 follows a tradi- 
tIon ’ ar rangement r i,, me *°dic line, harmoniza- 

sa y that music is (Vnilln ° r anythln 8 at all). We 

lf it follows no nafter,, \ &zz ' or typically American, 
ment m jazz tum. s out . at . aI , I! Even the Negroid ele- 
can. Actually, there i ^ ^ ^ ess A f r * c ®n than Ameri- 
African strain in th» . n .° more of an essentially 
here is an essentials r-' V,> American Negro than 
American of those an Pr . ench or Italian strain in the 
rb ythm and X£ ^ pure African beat 

ts American environm le . ody have become absorbed i” 
t0 emphasize b this that I have tri* 

and Beige, t h n ,.„ ? wn Citings. In Black. B: 

J azz today j s hv _ 1 un Age 

is 1 lh “ ml, 

iia,d work wJle that 'classical- m 1 ® 6 pla yar: 

Pure fun. Weil tw repres ents the livolil^ 15 means 
certainly ^ ^ be so-to ^% aspe cts of 

concerned Tho - the case as far a c llste ner! It 
thorough mu ijL Ja h Z musician todlv n! Perf °rmer is 

needs to be more than gr0Und he can Possibl^ 6 111051 
striunent, whatever fh <- m ° dera tely exMrf b y ?et ’ He 

kind of theored! !, at may be; he «£?* ° n his in- 
harmonic and arranw tery that ca n solve S l, havet he 
ment’s hesitation- ^ probl em s with ^. sorts of 
aware of musical' hTl ° f aU - he nel i f a >no- 
that history. history an d the positj ^ b ° acute *y 

jsXsrsRisr a »•«» « *“ - 

Those matters may entP° d ° X harmonies^ actr ^' And m y fantnsJ'^ 5 ambi, ious Negroes in 

7 6nter mto but onlVn u ink not with h? ' p t ro duce the ^l5 aduaIIy Ganges its chi 
the Mature have hopes and dren^l ^ he f^Part of Amerii 
ma de America for °rf and ^ ove °f freedom th 
a for a11 ( Continued on Page 17: 

emphasize i n nJ 1 ^ 0111 ' Tt k thls that I have u. 
“ niiB «se, Ihave • °* n writings. In Black. Brou 
egro in America- The 10 s h° w the development of t 
o be and as he is ts ° s h° wn him as he is suppos 
movement reflect the * e ° pening themes of the thi: 
'died, noisy confusi SUpposed 'to-be-Negro — the ui 
"at have plenty 0 f ‘a? ° f the Harlem cabaret whic 
^e tourist’s e^^.^mosphere’ If it is to live up - 
nt, more churches th But ~ th ere are, by numeric 

wal^r ^h-cducatedald^l” 1 Harlem ' 

** J XXI I 

MVSK Jr ®r ex alts Ufb 





G OING BACK to the day of “the greatest 
singers the world has ever known,” 
and to the days immediately following, 
we learn that the order of the day was “Sup- 
port the voice from the chest.” The question 
now is, was this support purely breath support 
or was the tone supported from the chest? In 
other words was the resonance of the chest 
used to amplify the resonance of the head? 

Bassini, who was a pupil of Crescentini 
(“the last of the great singers that Italy pro- 
duced”) , in speaking of “falsetto” says that 
the theoretical signification of the word 
“falsetto” is not that voice which imitates the 
woman’s voice, but “all are falsetto tones 
which are not produced from the chest.” 

Mancini (1716-1800) supported the voice i 

from the chest, and he was a pupil of Bernac- L 

chi, one of the greatest, and the most florid 
singer the world has ever known. Sbriglia 
made the head voice, supported from the 
chest, the basis of vocal development; the 
chest support making the tone brilliant and powerful. 

In connection with the Bassini-Mancini period there 
is one point that will greatly assist us in our investiga- 
tion; that is, that prior to the coming of Garcia the 
second (1805-1906), the voice was divided into two, 
and not three registers. Cassini (1606-) named them 
“natural voice” and “feigned or falsetto voice”; while 
Mancini named them “natural or chest-voice” and 
"artificial or head voice.” Also Mancini demanded 
that the two be united and equalised. Therefore, since 
there were but two registers, there was not the Garcia- 
introduced third register with its pronounced break 
in the low range, and its resultant masculine-like tone 
to contend with. And significant it is that we are 
speaking of the foundation of the development of the 
greatest voices the world has ever known. Faustina 
(1695-1783) was noted for her unequalled agility, bril- 
liant embellishments, and exquisite trill; Cuzzoni 
(1700-1770) was known as a mistress of her art, her 
high notes unrivaled in clearness and sweetness, and 
her trill perfect; Banti (1759-1806) Is spoken of as 
having a voice of most extensive range, while her 
agility excelled most singers in the bravura style; then 
there was Ansini whose tenor voice is described as 
sweet and powerful; as for Bernacchi, it is recorded 
that on one occasion when Farinelii, lauded as the 
greatest of singers, had given an exhibition of his 
wonderful dexterity, Bernacchi, not to be outdone, 
arose and poured forth a veritable torrent of florid 
embellishments which so astounded Farinelii that he 
begged Bernacchi to accept him as a pupil. 

Now since all of these wonderful singers, save Ansini, 
were florid singers, it stands to reason that they did 
not carry into the high range that which we of today 
name “chest-voice,” for that would have made their 
astonishing dexterity impossible, inasmuch as there 
would be a constant drag on’ the voice. Then, since it 
is only through the use of chest resonance that 
“feigned,” “artificial,” “falsetto,” “head voice” could 
be made true voice and powerful voice, how did Man- 
cinis “natural or chest-voice” become the means to that 
end? Is not the answer in Mancini’s demand that the 
tioo be united and equalised? Then, how were they 
united and equalized? 

An Interesting Query 

Suppose that it were possible to empty a resonance 
cavity of air, would there be any resonance without 
air? No. Then it is not the cavity itself that is the 
resonator, but the air in the cavity. Then since it is 
the air that is the resonator, wherever there is con- 
fined air there will be resonance, hence all of the air 
containing cavities and cells from the forehead to the 
pit of the lungs resound together. Therefore, there are 
not several resonators, but only one, and that one the 
air in the lungs, bronchial tubes, windpipe, larynx, 
mouth, throat, nasal cavity, and passages, and the 
smaller cavities of the skull. Therefore, the air in the 
lungs is just as much a part of the resonator as is the 
air in the cavities of the head, while the amount of 
sounding air in the lungs is many times that of all the 
cavities put together. So that chest-resonance, faint 
in some cases and strong in others, is ever present. 
The physician knows this when in testing the lungs he 
places his stethoscope on the chest while the patient 
says ninety-nine, pulmonary, and so forth. 

MARCH, 1947 

Chest Support 
In Singing 


/ \JUiiiiam «2). s^lrmstvon 

Then if chest-resonance is ever present, why, in the 
majority of cases is it too faint to be perceived? Submit 
the question, as all other questions pertaining to voice 
should be submitted, to the judge of the supreme 
court of investigation, that is, “judge psychology,” 
whose decisions always are final, and the answer will 
be “an upward displacement of the larynx.” Then, 
how does the larynx become displaced? Through a teen 
age contracted habit of speaking in a too highly pitched 
tone of voice, and in singing, through strict adherence 
to “head voice.” In what way does this displacement 
cause chest resonance to be faint? If the reader will 
place a finger on the larynx and a hand on the chest 
while producing a “falsetto” tone two things will be 
noted, first that the larynx has taken a high position 
and second that only a faint vibration in the chest is 
felt. Then, upon imitating or producing the deep tone 
of a basso or a contralto it will be noted that the 
larynx has greatly lowered, while a strong vibration in 
the chest is felt. Further, if while producing this deep 
tone the larynx is moved from side to side, a grating 
of the larynx on the spine is felt, whereas, when the 
falsetto tone is produced no such grating is felt. In this 
grating we have a contact of the larynx with the spine 
through which the vibrations of the larynx are trans- 
mitted to the air in the lungs, thus setting up resonance 
in the chest. To illustrate; In the erection of the steel 
skeleton of a building, an electrical riveter is used to 
unite the steel beams. When the riveter touches one 
of the rivets used, the whole skeleton of the building 
and the surrounding air is set vibrating; the vibrating 
ceasing with the removal of the riveter. 

The Position of the Larynx 

Now the beating riveter represents the larynx; the 
contact of the riveter with the rivet, the contact of the 
larynx with the spine; the skeleton of the building, 
the bony framework of the chest; the surrounding air, 
the air in the lungs; the removal of the riveter, the 
displacement of the larynx, and the ceasing of the 
vibration, the loss of chest-resonance. Now when the 
muscles which draw the larynx up and away from the 
spine and those which draw the larynx down and back 
against the spine are equally contracted, the position 
of the larynx is central. So that a position half an inch 
above or below the central position is a displacement. 
Therefore, in the average case, and with the exception 
of cases in which habitual use of falsetto, or strict 
adherence to “head voice,” or a nasality has caused a 
great elevation of the larynx, a lowering of only about 
half an inch places the larynx in contact with the 

And so, through simply lowering the larynx about 
half an inch, head resonance is reinforced by deeper, 
fuller, nobility giving chest resonance; that balanced 
resonance heard by the sensitive ear in all great voices 
from soprano to basso. Evidently it is this position of 
the larynx that investigators have in mind when they 
agree that tone is at its best, when the position of the 
larynx is central. 



Music and Study 

How then may this proper position be es- 
tablished? Like everything else touched by 
science, it is simplicity itself. Giving no 
thought to a yawning sensation, or a somber- 
ing of tone, which can cause an excessive 
lowering of the larynx, and at the same time 
exert a drag on the voice, or to nasality which 
prevents a lowering of the larynx, fix the 
mind on the chest, at a point about three 
inches from the top of the breast bone, and 
with the chest elevated and the mouth opened 
with a natural smile (Mancini), direct, not 
force, but breathe, sigh each tone of the entire 
- range to that point. In this we are using men- 

tal persuasion instead of physical coercion. 

The instant the thought “voice” enters the 
mind, the subconscious mind, associating 
“voice” and the organ that makes the voice, 
becomes fixed on the larynx. Almost instantaneously 
with the decision to direct tone downward to the chest, 
a message “downward to the chest” goes to the motor 
area of the brain and the larynx moves downward. 

The mind cannot be occupied with two opposite im- 
pressions, such as downward and upward, at the same 
time, so that as long as the thought “downward to the 
chest” prevails the larynx will hold its new position, or 
until the counter-thought, “upward to the head” 
causes it to rise from that position. 

Directing the Tone Downward 

Through concentration of the conscious mind on 
“downward to the chest,” the impression finally finds 
lodgment in the subconscious mind, and like all other 
new bodily activities which have been impressed upon 
the subconscious mind, directing each tone of the en- 
tire range to our given point on the chest becomes 
“second nature,” and having become “second nature,” 
no greater effort is involved than in directing tone 
upward to the head. 

Through directing or sighing the tone downward to 
the chest, the voice is, as it were, resting upon the 
chest instead of upon the throat, thus permitting that 
muscular freedom so essential to a facile technic. 
Mancini supported the voice from the chest to, as he 
said, “leave the throat free.” 

To start the voice on a sigh w r e use the prefix h, 
because being an aspirate it initiates free use of the 

All three exercises are to be sung first to the vowel 
■u, and then to each of the vowels e, a, e, a, 6, 6, 66, or, 
e, ai, eh, ah, aw, o, oo. The vowel u, as in the word 
study, is next in order to the “natural” vowel u, 
“natural” because it is produced with the least effort, 
and hence with the least possibility of throat contrac- 
tion which prevents a lowering of the larynx, con- 
traction that often accompanies the utterance of “ah”. 
Also, “u” is the modification of ah through which the 
voice is carried above /-natural, fifth line, treble staff, 
without injury to the vocal bands. So that in starting 
with “u” instead of “ah” we are anticipating this im- 
portant modification. 

The only novelty about the use of is the con- 
scious use of it. Most singers, and especially coloratura 
sopranos unconsciously take ( Continued on Page 166) 


Music and Study 

while the passage on the line above 
urally into threes. e thjs 




The Pianist’s Page 

2)/% Cji 

Ex. I! 

f uij III cue r 

Noted Pianist and 
Music Educator 

Chips from the Block 


stantly' proddin^?^ ta ' 

months to accomplish Pictnre» d S . teachlng takes 
dramatically by the teache^T 6 , slogans ” spoken 
dent’s notebook are amonf th' , Wntten ln the 

e^tiv^ SLhSTvelS' 

^ Caress, don’t press!” 

^Easy, not squeezy!” 

“Up n touch ike y t ° U ‘i *f eys ’ stroke them!” 

To acquire' fr'ef floatin* 2 ?“ ° Ut ° f P^cussion!” 
student that the elbow is the bodv* X , lm P ress on the 
ancer, and “steering Vhetr reIa *er, bal- 

see for yourself) . . To emnh ' 5 Ju *t test this, and 
hort as follows: emphasize this point x ex- 

Elbow light, body right i” 

Sir ^ Swer e ”' b0WS! ” 

many slogans . i^T" * treated With 

£TS sr* — - srssr 

, Blgbfc elbow - lQ ose thumb; 

Tight elbow, ‘bum- thumb ” 


ht thumb, pianist dumb!” 

H^Ss one d m gh? BUmpS thum P by'" 


AM ttot (I h “ r »» tSKUw 

«* Jltfe 
questions before referring to the i n y to repIy *° the 
g the answers which follow. 


1- What ^ the b6St ““ «* the hand in playing 

On Page 9. second line, the left hand is of ^ 

** °i course: 



» 3 

octave?^’ raPid ° CtaVeS (b) brilIiant . incisive 

2 ' there in technical approach 

(or execution) between (a) an octave passage 

and^whS SysT te ^ 0,16 Pl * yed » bb “ k 

• Say ed are ^ reP6ated note ° c ‘ ay e passages 
5 ' iTthe Ars^i" aTjseTtS How to " 6 ‘T* What 

trouble a what I are°the b spedfi t °t CtaVe passage gives 

8- What “feeling” ta? r LTnfh^ mS to * Cbeck up 
in octave playing? and must be cultivated 

Answers : 

l sr as “x r« -sr * %■> 

2. Almost none; both are ^ the keys - 

varying degrees of remforceLZ T MffCTS with 
arm. The black-and-whhe n^? fr ° m hand and 
have a very slight *‘ 0 iling um^f WlU naturaUy 
movement. . . . This m™.! Up m and out arm 
as much as possible It is of* Should be reduced 
parked if the fourth fingers are" 86 ' mUCh more 
black keys. Fourth fingers on hi n , 0t played °n 
tially reduce lost motion b ack keys sub stan- 

' fing°er £ XJg T HT * t0 «* *»I 

agents. Besides added Swefth OCt f Ve - prod ncinf 
masses (forearm and fun arm) A larger mus cle 


from the*rote ting forearm^and Ut t0Ward the tb umb 
5- Since the best way to Wn f f Ith vibr atinghS 
^mpulse practice "of tZ $±° Ctaves U CX 
forth, always look first L Z S ’ four s, and so 

<or Tomer 551186 ' Practic c these^n 1 ? 11681 intervaIs 

,lv,z s r s u c jri «“■> 

Examples A and B are variatloas of the one,,. 

2J? *“ * tet ■»«*■ <»■. tSSSiSJ 


a ~ r 


^ — 

(At first, practice octave passages intm- « 
chords, like the above, as “stroivht” , PerMd 
the inside notes.) Khl octaves withou 

Should ^StS pracUced^ve ““ ,° r ‘ aVC p ^ ag c 
fortissimo and staccato hands oi)'n?at S i° Wly '/ eUlXedl> 
without pedal and without SoklM al h “I, l ° gether 
keyboard. (“Ouch! All that’” r i . Bt hand * 1 not€S oi 
it's the only way to ' YeS 

6. Since it is the fingers whi, h „ . d ' endurance.) 
octaves, the pure finger-octavp , at ' tUaIly pla y the 
and fifth fingers and first n ^ atre,,Kth of the Arst 
be developed to the utmost N* f °, Urt . h fln gers must 
a good “octavlst” 27 ; ° plnnLst can become 

finger octaves. Now read al l „i n ,>OW< ' rf , Ully dev eloped 
No. 3. ad agaln question and answer 

before phiying'each oct a WrtSt (b> key-t °P cont act 
tion on the pfrt of wHsfr C> CXCCSS or lost mo ' 
petave mechanLsm qufet! ‘ ' ^ ^ 

before playinc pnrh^f * d) preparation 

the keys nZtlZ * * * * do| ,’t “stick” on 
thumb too tight? <r ° Ver t t ° th< ' next one - (e) 
of wrist or arm for 100 much substitution 

in single ocuves or IT”' <g ’ Arc vou th ‘nking 

octaves? n m ^ >l ^ ses ^our or more 

out of the rimes ttetJ* tHat ° f Khaklng marbles 
toward the thumb ^ 0 !?’ “ Slrong forearm rotation 
bration. mb> Wlth a sl ‘ght hand , wrist) vi- 

1 never LuJ h ° U9hf ° n Caching 

itations of talent hitefif ° n any ° f my students— lii 
eluding hand conform^?" 66 ’ capacity ' Physique (i 
student himself “ om?? for 1 kn °w that t 

hmitations, usually pyaf 0 painfu iiy aware of his ov 
been mistaken having f ggerat edly so. I have so ofti 
student who seemed llZZ 10 my sur P rise that son 

attractive— suddenly UPt untaiente d* Puny, ui 

ment on our studeiu!! Thi W il ry f aboUt sitting in juds 
sters, many 0 f them mic "j ° f tllese sensitive young 
and teachers, alreadv nnn U n derSt °° d by their famil i e 
upbringing and so Van P ^ ning y conditioned by thei 
minded of their circum^ ® ducatlon - constantly re 
comings. , . . It . s '^ sc . ribed capacities and short 
snap out of it, and if i ” der that an y of them evei 
°us power of music that 3 grea * tribute to the miracu- 
P d ad f ustment through th 3ny ° f them flnd saIvati011 
yheir piano teachers’ h the guidance and sympathy 

and confidently set a* 1 c E >rnes to me I cheerfully 
ar beyond the abilities ^ yhich has hitherto seemed 
assumed that he lni Z Z studen t himself. Having 
f* nUate into his coScLT thC goal 1 grad uaH.v in- 
quite within his eraan nCSS the assurance that it 

‘be w ay by po.,^4 grasp. . . Th en while r ]ight up 

th°ds the student is conceil t rated teaching 

invariably rewardin Pasbed along and the results 
students who were ,"'C ' ' 1 0311 P°int to dozens 
not ( Continued on Page 165) 


T he BACKGROUND of any accompaniment for 
the organ is the real preparation previously done 
on the piano. Before one takes an accompani- 
ment to the organ one must know the notes and know 
them well. Too much time is wasted learning notes 
on the organ (now that organs are more accessible 
than they used to be) . One must remember that most 
of our accompaniments are written for piano, there- 
fore, after we know the notes thoroughly, we must try 
to picture how they will be most effectively played on 
the organ; for something that sounds well on the piano 
is not necessarily going to sound pleasing on the organ. 
For instance, when there are arpeggios in the piano 
accompaniment, they should be carefully played on the 
organ with the proper harmonic background (it is a 
good idea, for the most part, to omit the arpeggios 
entirely) . The important thing in this case is to keep 
the rhythm going well. 

Some parts of the piano accompaniment sound thin 
on the organ, and these parts must be filled up. When 
the harmonies are too thick in the treble and in the 
bass, the middle voices should be filled up. For ex- 
ample, we can use the accompaniment from the “Mes- 
siah” as it appears in the edition of T. Tertius Noble 
and Max Spicker. The accompaniment sounds well on 
the piano just as it is written, but if one plays it as 
written, on the organ, the result is “fierce.” To begin 
with, there must be a continuous background of the 
harmony. Even when the “Messiah” is sung with or- 
chestra, there is a continuo, for the most part, played 
on the organ as a background to the instruments. This 
continuo is all the more important in our arrange- 
ments for the organ. The rich harmonies are there if 
we will only take the proper care to put them in the 
right places on the keyboard. H*ere, for example, are 
the first measures of Comfort Ye, as they appear in 
the vocal score (Ex. 1), and below (Ex. 2) is an ex- 
ample of the way that they should be played on the 


It should be remembered that just the notes alone 
are not the most important phase of an organ ac- 
companiment. As I have said above, the notes must 
be right before we start, but we have to rearrange the 
piano accompaniment to suit the organ if we are going 
to make the accompaniment sound well on the organ. 
Excellent singing and choir work are often ruined by 
bad organ accompanying and most of this is due to 
poor arranging. 

I still maintain that the organist should prepare his 
accompaniments well in advance, before he meets his 
choir or soloists. It gives one so much pleasure to do 
a first class job of accompanying for the choir and 
soloists, -who in turn are able to do their very best. 

There are all sorts of little things that appear, shall 
I say, between the lines in all styles of accompaniments. 
These are the little nuances made here and there in 
cooperation with the singer, and the bringing out of 
inner voices. A good piano accompanist never neglects 
these details; an organist seldom pays any attention 
to them. For example, here follows a bit (Ex. 3) from 
O Rest in the Lord from “Elijah” as it appears for 
piano; following it (Ex. 4), is an example of the way 
that I think it should be played on the organ (with 
some suggestions as to variety which the piece needs) . 

MARCH, 1947 

Music and Study 

Organ Accompaniments 

Inj ^Z^lexander l/f]c(durclij . 7 

Editor of the Organ Department 


When one uses his imagination in accompanying, he 
can achieve good results, even if he has to play music 
for singers which perhaps isn’t as good as he would 
like it to be, remembering that it is possible to make 
something great out of something that is trite. 

A great deal has been written about registration for 
solo accompaniments. It is well to remember that 
proper support should be given to the soloist. The or- 
gan always should be just under the soloist as he sings. 
When there are interludes, it is perfectly all right (if 
the selection warrants it) to use considerable amount 
of tone, coming back to the proper background when 
the soloist enters. I find that in accompaniments which 
move along at a fair pace, the organist is timid about 
using upper work. For clarity, one must not be afraid 
to use some super couplers, or some four foot and two 
foot stops adding some off pitch stops. When one plays 

an accompaniment such as the tenor aria from the 
“Messiah,” Every Valley, he should be careful to use a 
combination that is clear and light. There are accom- 
paniments which definitely demand a dark, heavy tone. 
There are accompaniments which demand a light, clear 
tone. For the latter type of accompaniment on a two 
manual organ a combination like this would be suit- 

Swell: Flutes 8' -4' 

Great: Flutes 8'-4' 

Pedal: light 16' 

All 8' and 4' couplers 
Play on Great 

Then for a dark tone try a combination like this: 
Swell: Flutes 8'-4' 


Great: Flute 8' 

Pedal: light 16' 

Only 8’ couplers 
Play on Great 

There are certain combinations for accompanying 
which must be set ahead of time if the organist wants 
to do a fine piece of work, providing he has an ade- 
quate organ with general pistons or one that can be 
set up by manual pistons. They should be set for solos 
and accompaniments on swell and great, also soit, 
medium, and loud ensembles. I am asked continually 
about the use of tremolos and celestes in accompani- 
ments. If the tremolos are not too violent and the 
celestes are not too prominent, I see no reason why 
they should not be used with discretion. 

I do not know who said this but it is a true saying 
and an important one for every accompanist (particu- 
larly the organ accompanist) to remember and heed, 
“The accompanist should be the humble servant of 
the soloist; he should never follow the soloist but 
always should be with him.” 

When the Pianist Plays the Organ 

hj. J-larofJ ^JJefman 

in the London Musical Opinion 

T HERE is no reason why a pianist should not 
play the organ well, or vice versa. The natural 
position of the hand should be of first consid- 
eration, and the thumb may be used freely on the 
black keys. In pianoforte playing the actual attack 
of the key is of the greatest importance. In the tech- 
nique of organ playing — so long as the stops are 
drawn — it matters not (to the same extent) how the 
act of touch is prepared, for the volume resulting will 
be according to the registration, but the release of 
the organ key is of vital importance. The speed and 
accuracy of real organ music can be mastered at the 
piano, and when this has been done it should be taken 
to the organ, the pedal part added, and due attention 
paid to the tone color of the instrument. It has often 
occurred to me that many pianists would benefit by 
a course of lessons on the organ, thus proving that 


there are wheels within wheels, the one being a help 
to the other. It would afford a good system of train- 
ing for the pianist in sustained music or works of the 
polyphonic type. 

It was Schumann who said that slow practice is 
golden. For only in slow practice can the value of 
each single note be proved. Play with the mind, listen- 
ing carefully to each and every note. This method oi 
slow practice and careful listening is also a great help 
towards memorizing. Some organists say they cannot 
play from memory, which need not be true. Every 
living soul has the gift of memory ih some degree, and 
this can always be trained. I have repeatedly met 
organists who refuse to try out a new or fresh organ 
when invited to do so because others are present who 
are better players. But the real reason for this seeming 
qhyness is nervousness, coupled with lack of experience 
in extempore playing. Here the homely pianoforte is 
of inestimable service, for it does not take long for 
a stout thinker to find out how to begin in a simple 
way. A knowledge of chords and their inversions, to- 
gether .with a few rules on the elements of form, 
makes an excellent beginning. 



Music and Study 

The Competition - Festival 

k WL», 2 >. &Jti 

factors and wid minimize the final r 
each participating group, it will « adjw. 

each participant is competing again*? the fact ? T' 
such standard is perfection itself A a stan daM ^ 
the point that aU participants are’ 7 W1!1 e mpt 1 ’ a ? 
this standard rather than an a ga tf 

rating plan was so conceived ■ Tb e s f e ? 

otu Ituu/U 1 ex LiiCl LXian Efl 07) 7V) 

rating plan was so conceived Tb e D :'7 l 

be placed upon the participant’s pr 0 gjL that 
ments. It is devised so as to S and acta*? 

W 2K Vr u CekS thousands °f school mu- 

wend 0 th^r/S SCJS 2 

555^“ instrumental and vocal com- 

fcLoSV/ZSS 11 SSrT„»"*’ ,am “' on “ 

»ssirs 10 wune 

to Show ,£ZZZTZ*Z r i°z? m ‘‘‘’' 

5ES 5 ! ’»”■« 

„ the , ppear , n ^ of “^,^2 
.rfc«V ?. y r°TSS Vi <>•-‘'0 

take on a new gloss and v,- ^ lns truments suddenly 
corroded shanks become free stickTvah' 3 " 6 removed: 
are cleansed and oiled until’ +u ky lves once again 
accurately; worn reeds all f W ° rk preciseIy and 
heads, drum sticks 1 and m T placed ' new tympani 
chased; untforra a? “1 “ ls “ llaneou s items are pur- 
dreds of other sundry itemTarp^ P ™ ssed: and hun- 
ting connected wilh th^feslL, ' /° r UntU eVery ' 
the great day. estival is in readiness for 

annuallyln th^preparado “of th” 8 ^ and eff ° rt spent 

•sands of schools m e ve “ parfof Am e eli eSti n 1S by th ° u ' 

Prising to And that some admini.??? iS not SUr ' 
educational values or the adSS^rf qUeSti ° n their 
such projects. avisibility of recommending 

the general music program of our schools. The festival 
participant, who recognizes the true values of the 
festival, gains much from his participation, while the 
participant, whose sole purpose is that of being a 
winner, represents one of education's most violent 

It should be emphasized that the attitudes, reactions, 

d concepts of students, administrators, and school 

bv the S i!lri Wa l d l he festivals are largely determined 

resmnsiWe m T COnd “ ctors ' For 11 is they who are 
lesponsible to a marked degree for the molding of 

mentals attltudes ' and the establishment of funda- 

;r i r « <ss 

one’s associates. These' pli^ ml?™* L ^ evaluatin S 
cult to define are thTatS^! T* diffl ' 
such participation. ges to be gained from 

* wcipant s proerpec 

ments. It is demised so as to compS^ 
ones performance of today as against L?£ ch < e 
rather than over that of an oppor Kf 0 ****? 
structure is based on individual and ' The «Rb 
improvement, and whatever competkL ean ^ti<2 
should be a result of such objecuS 
of defeating an opponent. ’ atber than t|>. 

Through the course of years more 
jctors, administrators and school „_? nd m ° r e con. 



■During the past two decaripc* • 
passed through several stages oT'w” 1 * have 
Prom the old type of W h f r °wing pains.” 
system type of con te t where drag -° ut ” »nk- 
the winner, to the presenF well 006 organizati °n was 
festival, where all participant^ f lanag ® d Competitive- 
Divisional Ratings hT be en a i^ Ve the challenge of 
uey. That detours, doad-ends difflcult jour- 

nal t the progress of thic d ? nd the llke ’ fai] ed to 
tributed to tKreL^Td!r at Pr ° gram can be at- 
table courage of those music pJ!? 1111 ^ 011 ' and indomi - 
and it is to them, that our present^ 5 ° f byg0ne days ’ 
Programs owe so much and the c ° m P etltive -festival 
tremely grateful. d should be forever ex- 

The success of our nrpcpnf 

Pendent upon the co6p!raik,7 ^ 10 fastival Is de- 
unity of purpose of at least five n nd ? rstandin g, and 
Participants. ( 2 ) Teachers r™,^^ 165 ' namely; (i) 
tra tors. (4) Adjudicators ra? » C ^ rS - (3) Adm m s - 
Competitive-festivals exist fnr^th 0 Schools - 

namely the students. Too often how® Partici P a nts- 
the case. In many instances we fl h ^?J er ’ SUch ls n °t 
objective becomes that of es’tablishin that the primar y 
objectives are false and are ras^nlfm a Wlnner - Such 

“ a ~ ta - - zsztsttsssr; 


The Conductor 

the guiding forae^houWhel^se^fihi 6 ° f ^ P 0 ^ 11011 - 
the one object^ 0 f wSmLj f ^ COncerned with 
enter the festival with intend of m^ a ° d thereby 
it, then very likely his student ^ahmg a contest of 
such circumstances, neither theT d° likewise - Under 
dents are realizing the true nductor or his stu- 
and are definitely the losers evelf fh S6S f the festiv al 
tor may award them a first divisi thougb the adjudica- 
we have witnessed Performances hi l at “ g ' Fret l ue ntly 
concern was that of their ratine tt ^ 3ndS Whose ord J' 
groups fail to gain much fmm tUDately these 

than a drsappointed rating- 0 n fh expenenc e other 

sssss TZ ss? J ? *r Wi 

school administrators must be p P ° se ’. 0ur students and 
facts and the educate of th e V nf ° rmed °f these 

plaoe^uperee^Ki' for'a^^t 

administrator who will to^T educati on ideals 

a 0 n a ed W u°cator ThS f like ^e “fai™ ^ 
administrator S c f al S h et ' up K when conS^tof’ 35 

festival keePWg ^ the higfi^ “ ' \ “ ap fer 

wic course oi years mnrA 
ductors, administrators and school na f r nd m ° re ' 
come familiar with the purposes 0 f thtaT have 
sical competition and changes that h. m of >Htt- 
the manner of evaluating perfonnanc^h?v eVOlVe(1 1» 
the opposition. Administrators favor th,^ mello "'ci 
petition as being fair, clean and healthv ?? of «*• 
Jority have come to see Its values Thev n 1 the n;a ' 
come to regard the festival a , an rm2 . have ^ 
teaching students the ethics and prinrtof' ^ for 
competition rather than Ignoring m ^ P es of fair 
thereby falling to provide for u., !, n P ^ n , ce and 
and appraisal of Its values. Although » “ nderstan % 
of the past have evinced some opDasfuon educato,s 
festivals, such opposition l.s rapidh- a, " t ° C ° mpetiti ™ 
the impetus and motivation whh-h^n. Tt nng Eince 
the music programs of our 22L # 
shown by participating groutxs have ^ ProgIess 
elimination of such elements ' d 10 a 

In defense of thase who 

of the past, we must admit UiaTthe^hn ^ COntets 
objectives of those contests were i!i7^°!! Pte and 
educational viewpoint Thev ™ “ desfrahi le from M 

^ gave ..rted^\: n r r wh e at winnmte 

emerged victorious.” Then too whil^h ° ne 

sfssj 'r a s"“ “ zvzz 

s?- «« 


™ a<, "” n “‘" ed ' w “ «' 'ZSSss* 

BAN 0, orchestra 

, . . and CHORUS 

Ed.Ud by W||| , i 

• K ev e ||; 

Some Weaknesses of Present Plan 

wise-^xisTtor^ ^ *‘ atod ’ f est l va ls— competitive or other- 
theses of s „Mf StUdCnUs ’ h(,, ‘ cp "hen we evaluate 
of our present d«v Hi C | C . an fCadily sce the advantages 

of the rank system whit °h raUng gystem over that 
clared the winn .r ber cby one organization was de- 

their abilities or'murn “ l othcrs ! osers, regardless of 
Although Q y ° f P crfor '« a uce. 
improvement Pr ff en ^ plarl represents considerable 
done befora ft th , erp rem atn, much to be 

The basir nhn ’^t^factorily serve its true purposes, 
formance by Sminf" t recognbdn g artistic per- 
sound. However a ^ rst divisi °n seems logically 

riv e at sueh aL i , e means by which adjudicators ar- 
here that our n S '° n ' S ^ Quite another matter. It is 
Past fifteen yeara^h” 1 P ' an seems to fail. During the 
35 a judge for hunt V ’T ltcr has been privileged to act 
nation at wluVh “! ldreds ot festivals throughout the 
Possessing varvi^ *, meS or g anlz ations and individuals 
In altogether \ g degrees of abilities were adjudicated, 
fected bv mn^v n ' any instances, decisions were ef- 
tolerated in ov ( 0nS wb ich should never have been 
a s the confinin',, <° f SUch importance. Such factors— 
understanding a °- rat * ngs f° three divisions, lack of 
adjudicators and agreem ent of standards between 
unbearable aeo> particlpan ts, impractical score sheets, 
time for proviso ^ ° f certain auditoriums, lack of 
scheduling 0 f ° n ° f helpful comments, inconsiderate 
o’clock in thn u?'* ntS ’ (part * ci Pants traveling at four 
host city in ti m , g ln of der that they can arrive in 
numerous other V°f festival appearance). These and 
of uniformitv nf actors have contributed to the lack 
mediocre nprfn-~ andards ’ and the current trend of 
recent festivals ances which have been observed at 

the most imnnr| SSUe ^ HE Dtude. we shall deal with 
cator" — a t ‘ hi V, 1 " 1 , voice of the festival— “The adjudi- 
tions, influenre me We sba h discuss his qualifica- 
festivals. ’ and mean s for his improving future 


Music and Study 


T HE MODERN orchestra, suave and polished and 
nicely turned, is compounded of sundry ancient 
voices — viol and pipe and throbbing string — that 
whet the ear and calm the spirit. This conclave of har- 
monic sound, a distilled fragment of that vast store- 
house from which the very soul of music has evolved, 
has a long and honorable history. 

For instance, Catherine- de Medici, wishing to divert 
the mind of her daughter-in-law, Marguerite de Valois, 
who might otherwise be expected to find inconvenient 
diversion of her own by prying into state affairs, com- 
missioned Masques, “attended by viols and hautboys, 
to play sweet and beguiling airs,” thus relieving the 
royal court of ennui and the rigors of its own society. 

The “Masques” of Catherine’s day antedated by some 
years that piece by Peri considered by all good mu- 
sicians to have been the first opera. And the accom- 
panying “viols and hautboys” perhaps foretold the 
modern orchestra. 

Early in the 16th century, Marguerite and a glitter- 
ing retinue made a state journey from Meuse to Liege. 
Her memoirs recount: 

“The boats . . . not all being ready, I was under the 
necessity of staying another day. . . . After dinner, we 
embarked on the river in a very beautiful boat, sur- 
rounded by others having on board musicians playing 
on hautboys, horns and violins. . . .” 

And even scholars are prone to forget that Benvenuto 
Cellini was made horn player to the Pope, as well as 
goldsmith. And we are told that Benvenuto’s father 
“made organs, clavichords, violins, and harps.” 

Glancing up and down the outer rim of any modern 
orchestra, we see first of all the violins. Many volumes 
have been devoted to the violin and its development 
by the artists of Cremona, for an ancestor of the violin 
was the first bowed instrument in Italy. 

Development of the Violin 

This was called the rebecca, rebecchino, rubebe, and 
the rubeba. The rubebe, long and slender and a bowed 
first cousin to the lute, was used by the trovatore 
(troubadors) of the thirteenth century. The viello was 
a longer and later form — then came the lira da braccia 
and the lira da gaviba, ancestors of the viole, viola, and 
viol, which comprised the so-called “setts of viols.” 

The modern colloquial term of “fiddle,” applied in 
a popular sense to any form of viol instrument, stems 
from old Saxon speech. The Saxon "fiedel, viedel, 
fydele, fithel, and fele” (ninth century) emerge from 
the Latin fidicula, meaning a stringed instrument. The 
word “fiddle,” therefore, is derived from the Old Eng- 
lish root. 

One Gasparo da Salo supposedly developed the first 
small violin in Italy in 1566. “He spent many years,” 
says Beatrice Edgerly, “experimenting with the viol. 

Viols and Hautboys 

Julian Sc 


making it smaller and more delicate, raising the arch 
and narrowing the sides.” 

The Amati brothers, Andrea and Niceolo, were the 
first real artisans of the violin trade, establishing a 
tradition of expert workmanship carried on by Andrea’s 
two sons, Antonio and Geronimo. But Geronimo’s son, 
Niccolo, added individual perfections of his own and 
came to be known as “the Grand Amati.” 

Two famous pupils of Niccolo, Giuseppe Guarneri, 
and Antonio Stradivari (called “the Raphael of the 
violin”) brought the art of violin-making to the very 
zenith of accomplishment. Most of the early Stradivari 
violins retain the name of Amati. So reverently did 
Niccolo’s pupil regard the reputation of his master, 
that not until 1690 did he use his own name on his 
violins. The Stradivari violins may be distinguished 
by a redder and darker varnish, a wider waist and a 
gentler slope in the arches. 

The recipe for the Stradivari varnish, an important 
requisite in attaining the full and golden tone of these 
instruments, was written in his Bible and the secret 
was buried with him. In the course of his long life- 
time, he made nearly 2000 instruments — including lutes, 
viols, guitars, cithars, and harps. A Stradivari harp 
is a priceless rarity today. 

The viols of the modern orchestra — violin, viola, 
’cello, and bass — omit several in-between sizes and 
shapes discarded as inconvenient or obsolete with the 
passing years. The early “chest” consisted of six, from 
the treble or discant viol (violino piccolo) to the double 
bass or violone. 

The names of these viols indicated the size and 
manner in which they were to be played. For instance, 
the viola da gamba (leg or knee viol) ; viola da spallo 
(held against the shoulder) ; viola da braccia (arm 
viol) ; viola da manno (hand viol) ; viola bastardo 
(large viola da gamba); viola di bardone (similar, 
smaller and more melodious; also called the viola 
d’amore; the violet or English violet) . 

The modern viola is descended from the viola da 
braccia and has been used almost as long as the violin. 
It is pitched a fifth lower. The ’cello (violoncello) is 
a child of the viola da gamba; the bass viol, of the 
violone, or great bass, used almost exclusively in 
churches of the fifteenth century. The original violone 
at first had five strings, later six, with a neck marked 
with frets and a shape akin to the lutes. 

The Oboe 

The oldest instrument of the modern orchestra is 
the oboe, or what is now the oboe. The “hautboy” of 
Catherine de Medici’s “Masques” and the oboe, that 
harsh and lonely voice of the present day ensemble, 
are one and the same. The oboe has never flourished 
as a solo instrument, though there have been in- 
stances within the memory of contemporary concert 
addicts .wherein the oboe has been seen and heard for 
itself alone. 

Just who invented the oboe and why, are questions 
that may never be answered, for who can tell the 
wherefores of a prehistoric footprint, be the originator 
pleosaurus or shepherd boy? Invention of the oboe 
probably was an accident, as Alfred Sprissler has sug- 

“The double reed is the simplest of all contrivances,’ 


Edited by William D. Revelli 

he wrote. “Probably some careless aborigine, a poet at 
heart, flattened an end of a wheat straw, which con- 
stituted the apparatus capable of setting in vibration 
the column of air contained in the rudimentary tube. 
Having gone this far, it was easy to improve upon it 
and the reed stalk with the rudimentary reed inserted 
in one end became the form of this primitive instru- 

“The_ fundamental lateral holes were next added and 
these, too, were probably results of chance and not of 
careful experiment. Then a wooden tube was substi- 
tuted for the reed stalk, still, however, preserving the 
reed tongue.” 

And now, for the sake of further clarity upon a 
melancholy subject, let us examine the oboe of the 
modem orchestra. It is tapering and encrusted with 
stops and vents, and contains a conical column of air 
set in vibration by means of a double reed. The reed 
is a mouthpiece made of two leaves of cane, suitably 
shaped and tuned. 

A series of holes pierced in the side of the oboe 
permits the operator to shorten the column of air by 
a successive opening of lateral vents and thus produce 
a scale. In the primitive instruments this scale did 
not exceed an octave. 

The family tree of the oboe is taller and more ex- 
pansive than those of most patricians who hear it at 
an orchestral concert. It is related, for instance, to 
that fascinating family of the cromomas, cousins of 
the corthols and the cervelas. These species of instru- 
ments have disappeared from the music of our day. 

A few scattered relatives live in the Orient — the Cau- 
casian salamouri, the Chinese kwan-tze and the 
hitshiriki of Japan. 

Gevaert asserts that the double-reed pipes held an 
insignificant place in the instrumental music of an- 
cient Greece and Rome. The first appearance of the 
instrument we know as an oboe occurs in Sebastian 
Virdung’s “Musica getutschi und aussgezogen” (1511). 

It bears the name of Schalmey and it is already as- 
sociated with an instrument of similar construction 
called Bombard. 

Ancestors of the Oboe 

The oboe owes its present form to five illustrious an- 
cestors of the Schalmey family. First of the five is the 
little Schalmey, only seventeen inches long and evi- 
dently making up in shrillness what it lacked in size. 

It had six lateral holes and no keys. Its lowest note 
was A on the staff. The discant Schalmey was only 
twenty-six inches long and the lowest note was D. 

The alto Pommer, thirty and one half inches long, 
had low G for its deepest tone and was supplied with 
four keys, or rather flappers. The tenor Pommer meas- 
ured some four feet four inches and was equipped with 
four keys which gave the grave notes G, B, A, and G. 
The bass Pommer, nearly six feet long, had the cus- 
tomary six lateral holes with four keys. 

The seventeenth century made comparatively few 
improvements in the family. In France, however, the 
four smaller instruments of the family came into ex- 
tended use and were called hauex bois, or “high woods,” 
to distinguish them from the two larger instrument’s, 
designated by the words gros bois. Hautbois soon be- 
came hautboix in modem French, and oboe in EnglisVy 
German, and Italian. jM 

In those early days of the oboe many of the super- 
stitions current today concerning the instrument were 
started. In those days botii reeds and ir, iruments 
were extremely primitive, and the desired effect seemed 
to be noise and much of it. (Continued, en Page 170) 

MARCH, 1947 



Music and Study 

The Violinist Who Thrilled 
Your Great-Grandmother 

^ Stanley. S. ^ acoli 

t?o C n°| d ThooM^ motif ii a dT r i" S* W ° M ' 0le Bu " had a 

os that m which the radio star affects the f bobby [ots."" ° JJJ 

™Sp Q rLY 32? h iT h i m t0 acoept 

A paper woman wrote th, , f 6 * York news ' 

Adam must have looked in p * ^ , bore himself “as 
his butler for his b^hwaVVnf ® Women bribed 
A giant Norwegian vi^n f tr ^sured it in vials, 
idol who made your TreTt-H ^ £ Ie Bul1 was the 
was too ladylike to squeal SW00n - she 

great-grand-daughter does torio , and aah!” as her 
clutches the m.crophone tfl ® Prankie si “ a ‘™ 
flowers and some of the bolder m V P t! ted ° le with 
riage and pulled him through th S t unhorsed his car- 
and lithe, possessed oSll^' ° le was tal1 
somewhat irregular featuYefw eyes and broad, 
even uncouth, yet this seemed VT Was rough ’ 
sonahty in the eyes of his TvoteS. ““ pel " 

According to the Critics 

“He iVyouIg r unman1ed nU tal C l deIi riously: 

“ Apoioitr^g^ 


t j - y- 



'm mmMW 



f-f- i 

Thn ^ Prodigy 

andVd 01 "“^''n^YsYaVntVVV^ 01 ' 0 " Without 

sawed away on ^sX At the age of thme.oie 

f ai c lp ihe Bergen Theater wh ? V mus icians he 
father bought him a violin bAh™, he was e >ght his 

by eerily f n r ge When the boy started Th tostrumen ‘ 

‘ocr^r- ™ Sts svr- s 

violin He wnn forsook everything j n f Geological 

r fo»rr ,t “»* >» tf„s„,x o, c 

At twentv-one ho WUh 

“I too shall TT* 1 f0r weeka - d that n ‘ght 

, r j™ u -uuunce of aristocrats h 
pie, housewives, and men-about-tou ,, bus ‘ness ^ 
by Ole's European glorv. In t he mT? Were tr- 
ance a string snapped nl ZT ' ** £fS? 

grinned, winked, and fluished oVTh^ Cf * 1 ' 
house expioded in admiration. «g 

grmnea, »m K ed. and finished on thl g N °rw e 
house exploded in admiration The V strin 8s 
fame. ne story sp ' 

nio „„h * „ F ead 

• spread l. 

Ole used an almost flat bridge on h. ^ 

he could play on all four strings ™ violi n, so th , 
effect. This "quartetto” playS !i° nce With 0 
the groundlings. Bull's bow As T ] sensa tio n JJ 
that no ordinary violinist could usTi t ° n8 3nd h V 

A Natural Gift 

Today's music historians concede t h „, „ 
an elemental natural gift which W 0Ie Bull hah 
him to even greater height r, , ght ha ve carried 

«... c.c.ucnuu natural gift which ~«T Wie -Bull 
him to even greater heights n T V have c arri e 
one of the most proficient fidcilerl ^ Ceded be Was 
how. But he was not merely^^ b »«U 

■ HIS p 0Wer 

yet creased "the broad^Atlanr ^ “* that eVer 
Wgh, hoflzon «l»n the 
mooned : vvoria. Another reviewer 

stringed instrumen'ts!’'’ n6d St ' Pet6r ° f the heaven of 

‘°hTs ScVfTlTaW' Pr ° Clalmed: 

upon the roots of my Llr His TV U,at pUlLs hard 
a cathedral window!” * aCe ^ 83 lumi nous as 

we inSSfnTole? si?p? 4 eL^IV hlre ’ ‘°° k pIeas ‘ 

Women and men poured gifts TT, Perfect dia,nonds - 
stream: vases, moTy Tafr wTT ™ in an endlesa 
shawls, mustache cups smokint f nngs ' ^che.s. 
ofl paintings, cakes, dogs bWs aTn V' night caps ' 

A normally sedate TwV- ’ and hair-shirts 
the news of a creakyTld^ gaffS^' CXCitedly reported 
been cured of his rheum.*- Who mira culously had 
mesmeric melodies. tlSm by liste ning to ole's 


mj Cl t ,N A,B OF TH E " 

Old South Preservation Fund, 

I i~ In />>d SnUll “ Cturch, 

iJhUHidmj Sveuinl, Jan. go, 

I Al 7 #1 A’rlrw l *i 


Ralph Waido Emerson, 
B*r»TR«us? hvor 

— * ; PIANIST. 


[l •- Piano Solo, 

» B.,„, U^olA, ' ' »"t STRAUS! 

I'I'K JUBILEE *INOERs * , ' V “ , ' a 


lh r <J. («I|J| Ikr M ,|| u , . 

bn 0UVE,t "EM'EI.L iiolmes 

4 TSs Moth,,-, 

OLE UUI.L psrformd fc 

t n ' bwrt ll rM , 

ll« Th. r ,, rt ' L|, ir WAIJH) ENERSOK 
I; TT "C«.,,| T„;„ 

7. (hnor^rn, ^ *WOEM 


II - — nventj. 

to t>.« r..L » k . 

f Toprilirr, . F ^ Jobilc# S imgtn, WMtt> 

• Mr$. A. C. L. Walntto 

I 5, TK ' S>«1 McloH,. 



10 . 

' ^ 0 , "po*ni and prrforrned bi 

oir. bull 


SECOND fiddle to ole bull 

. “I too shall mST ° T T eeks - at night 

vi °hn, as that fellow didT ^ Iaugh and cry with 
students in Paris w P TV he Proudly told w T my 
°f practice rietJ. se ^ himself a nma; • d k s fellow 
amazing technVV ned to become ahiTfT” 5 pr °gram 

of practice Z ‘ He set his fellow 

amazing te’chnicatof 16 ' 1 t0 bec °me able progra m 

He became a p . ° f the i£ , perfor m the 

i a n„ J me 111 m Pans. w as -other ed h, 3 “ virtu °so. 

He became -h -n p eatS of ** great xT, Perform the 
lady, and married her h’ W3S mothe red bya h Vlrtuoso - 
after he gave hi 5 - beautiful daughter abenevole nt 
less, on T e - hlS firet Paris coneV™: ^ there- 

after he ^SS*™** dap ^t r 
less, on the same T P ls c °ueert with Au the,e 
umphant tour of T P , ogram - Then h’ e went Ch ° Pin ’ n ° 
in one place T T y ' OIe was incanW on a tri- 
remain in Europe whiVh T 3t his wffe inT S h tayin 5 
world. Hp hppQn, wn he he toured tho a . c ^ldren 

of any generation ° n6 ° f the mos t lionTeTV ° f the 
,-n2Vi aiIed f or America in , US ' Clani 

first Amerlcan 

"Mrrrr^ Qs Par k Theater. 

is absolifteiy w!f„ 1 ^ y poetlcal charm, a power wh 
former, u, any trickster or ordinary p 
latanism” saTT m from the reproach of ch: 
Ole Bull had'eoT r ?K e S , Dictionar y of Musicians, 
the greatest of an f , rl8ht way. he would have be 
himself one of t> vio in fsts!" said Joseph Joachi 
evitable habit of i . lmmort aLs. But Ole had an i 
mental novelties .m troducln g sensational and seni 
He Probably knew m n nd f d by the public of ‘bat da 
Played the clasKine 4 ^ 1S llmitat l°ns, at least he nev 
largely 0 f his n publlc l his programs consist* 
Pieces, and folk c °mpositions, which were sho 
a little on the sentinT , wbich he P la - ve d exquisitely 
f w eet Home anTTl” 18 slde ' Yank ee Doodle; Horn 
tbe hearts of the h rka J lsas Traveler kindled fires i 
Clay fervently emT ^ e and the ^reat alike. Hem- 
Played an especianv Ced ° le BuU when the Norwegia: 
-Rose of Summer ' mour nful version of The Las 

wegian WoodYanT*? taken his fldd le into the Nor 
nature sounds he , earned to reproduce with it thi 
^uirreis, the “2 caIIs ' the *»?*« 

7 MUSIC mm an ’ S ^ ^ TT h ^ era e ck!ir ; f Wrd ^ cb 

UDY Ex ^n UFB „ ' « S ,.J °! .’SSSS-J’S 



C ONSIDERING the changes and developments in 
violin technique that have taken place in the 
last hundred years, it is amazing that more books 
of study material have not been written embodying 
these changes. But the fact remains that almost all 
the etudes necessary to the training of present-day 
violinists were written prior to 1880. Jacques-Fereol 
Mazas died ninety-eight years ago, yet his Studies are 
still as valuable to the student in 1947 as they were 
to the young violinists of his own day. 

On this page last November, I commented upon the 
unwarranted neglect of the Mazas Studies during the 
last two decades or so, and also analyzed some of the 
Special Studies to show their merits in the light of 
modern musical and technical requirements. This 
month the Second Book will be examined with the 
same object in view. 

As an adjunct to the study of Kreutzer these 27 
Brilliant Studies are invaluable, for they demand a 
flexibility of style that Kreutzer does not encourage. 
In fact, most students would do better with Kreutzer 
if they had previously worked on at least some of 
these studies. 

For the development of a flowing, vocal quality of 
tone and for training in subtlety of nuance,, the first 
study in this book, No. 31, has few equals. The student 
should be encouraged to give full rein to his imag- 
ination and to play the gracefully-molded phrases 
as expressively as he can. But the expression must be 
kept within the limits of rhythmic accuracy. In this 
direction there are many pitfalls for the careless 
student, and even the careful ones may have difficulty 
at first in giving each note its exact value. When a 
pupil can play the study expressively and in strict 
time, the teacher will find it useful material for a dis- 
cussion of the rubato, if he judges that the time is 
ripe for its introduction. 

The same remarks apply in a great measure to 
Nos. 38 and 40, though No. 38 is more difficult because 
of the many awkw'ard shifts, and No. 40 because of 
the higher positions involved. Both studies give the 
teacher opportunity to point out that the bow should 
be drawn nearer the bridge in the higher positions 
than it need be in the lower. Work on No. 40 may well 
be postponed until some of the later studies have been 
practiced: one cannot expect a pupil to play the elab- 
orate fiorature with grace and flexibility if he is not 
at home in the upper positions. 

No. 32 is obviously not easy to play in tune, and 
since good intonation is the first essential in violin 
playing, the pupil must concentrate on it before giving 
part of his attention to other matters. Later, the 
question of a smooth legato must be taken up. As the 
study calls for much crossing of strings, the technique 
of Round Bowing should be introduced, if the student 
has not already learned it. This vital legato element 
was discussed on the Violinist’s Forum Page last 
December. One more point in this study deserves men- 
tion: the plain, dotted, and tied quarters in the G 
major middle section. Most students tend to confuse 
the relative lengths of these notes. 

Many teachers overlook the value of No. 33 and pass 
it by. As a matter of fact, there is no better bowing 
exercise in the book. If it is carefully practiced exactly 
as it is written, with attention paid to every tie, dash, 
and staccato dot, the sensitivity of the pupil's bow 
arm will be noticeably improved. For the reasons men- 
tioned last November in the comment on No. 9, thought 
must also be given to the correct playing of the many 
passages in dotted rhythm. 

Most young violinists thoroughly enjoy an extended 
passage on the G string; for this reason, No. 35 is 
deservedly popular. The pupil’s natural enjoyment of 
the study — which, incidentally, should not be taken 
faster than j = 56 — gives the teacher a fine opportunity 
to impart many essential details of the technique of 
expression. Any pupil who can play this study well 
will have no technical troubles with Bach’s Air on 
the G String. It is a good plan, therefore, to let him 
work on this piece as soon as he has finished with 
the study. 

No. 36 is a valuable martele exercise and should cer- 
tainly not be neglected. But it should also be practiced 
in the lower half, the bow leaving the string after 
every stroke. Those passages which include two slurred 
notes in the same bow' with a staccato note should be 
played in the same way; that is, the bow should leave 
the string after the staccato and again after the second 

MARCH, 1947' 

Music and Study 


More About Mazas 

The 27 Brilliant Studies 

of the slurred notes. Too few etudes call for continued 
playing in the lower half, and use should be made of 
every study that can be so adapted, for a fluent con- 
trol of this part of the bow is essential to the modern 

The arpeggio passages in No. 37 are among the most 
difficult in the entire book, the E major arpeggio which 
occurs several times in the middle section making 
especially heavy demands on the left hand. For this 
reason, it is well to hold back the study until most 
of the others in the book have been practiced. But 
there is much to be learned from it in the way of ex- 
pressive technical playing. 

One might call No. 39 a “triple-threat” study, in that 
it should be practiced at the point, in the middle, and 
at the frog of the bow. Each part of the bow calls for 
a different motion of the wrist. At the frog and in the 
middle, the bow should leave the string after each 
note; at the point, both the martele and the detache 
should be used, the bow, of course, remaining on the 
string. One may consider a fourth “threat” to be pres- 
ent, for the left-hand difficulties are considerable. The 
study is really a series of broken double-stops, but it 
should be played as if each triplet were unbroken. For 
example, the fingering of the first measure. Ex. A, 
should be as In Ex. B. 

Ex. A 

Even a quite advanced player can gain benefit from 
this study. Played spiccato, at a rapid tempo and omit- 
ting all slurs, it is a splendid exercise for promoting 
lightness and coordination in the right arm. 

No. 41 is something of a rarity, in that it has ex- 
tended passages in the lower half of the bow. The 
passages so marked should be played about halfway 
between the middle and the frog, the bow leaving the 
string after each note. Little or no. arm should be 
used, the bow deriving its motion from the wrist joint. 
In the sections to be played at the point, each note 
must be sharply articulated. Throughout the study, 
the accent should be on the appoggiatura, not on the 
following note. The left-hand difficulties in No. 41 
are not exacting, so the pupil should see to it that 
he derives all possible benefit from its value as a bow- 
ing study. 

An entirely different type of bowing technique is to 
be found in No. 42. Here the bow remains on the string 
throughout the study. Some arm motion is necessary 
in order to gain enough length of stroke for the pairs 
of slurred notes, but the detache sixteenths should all 
be played from the wrist alone. All accents must be 
strongly marked, and produced by taking the bow 
rapidly on the indicated notes. The study should be 
practiced until it can be played at quite a fast tempo, 
for the faster it is played the more it develops the 
flexibility of the player’s bowing. 


Edited by Harold Berkley 

A sharp martele alternating with two slurred notes 
is the predominating feature of No. 43. Very short bow 
strokes should be used in all passages marked piano, 
the strokes being lengthened for the passages of 
crescendo or mezzo-forte. In the Musette section, con- 
siderably more bow pressure must be applied to the 
D string than to the open G, otherwise the repeated G 
will overpower the melodic line. This section contains 
a trap for the unwary. The notes flow along easily and 
comfortably for a line and a half — then comes an 
octave shift! The student who has not prepared- his 
hand for this shift will inevitably find that he has 
played the upper E- too flat. 

There is a good deal to be said for No. 45 as a 
spiccato study. However, the numerous slurs compli- 
cate matters considerably for a student who has not 
yet acquired a very fair control of the bowing. In such 
a case, it is a good idea for him to eliminate the slurs 
and play the entire study, including the sforzando 
passages, spiccato throughout. The slurs can be re- 
introduced later, if a review of the study is felt to be 
necessary. Until the left-hand difficulties are mas- 
tered, the sforzando passages should be practiced as 
unbroken octaves. 

In No. 46, the demands on both the right hand and 
the left are fairly exacting, and it should be studied 
and restudied until it can be played accurately and 
fluently. In the first three measures and all similar 
passages, most pupils have a tendency to use insuf- 
ficient finger grip on the second note of each group. 
The teacher must be on the watch for this fault, since 
it is one that can soon become a bad habit. He should 
also carefully watch the position of the pupil’s right 
hand and arm during the repeated down bows. At the 
first sign of inflexibility it must be pointed out that 
at the beginning of each down bow the fingers should 
be bent, with the arm, wrist, and hand in a straight 
line parallel with the floor. The middle section should 
be practiced as quarter notes until the intonation is 
secure; otherwise the pupil, captivated by the ricochet 
bowing, will surely forget that playing in tune must 
be his first concern. 

Little need be said about No. 49, except that careful 
attention should be paid to the marks of expression, 
and that it is at least as valuable when practiced in 
the lower half of the bow as when taken near the 
point. All changes in dynamics are better produced 
by increasing or decreasing the length of the bow 
stroke than by altering the bow pressure. 

No. 50 is entitled “Bowing-exercise,” but actually 
the left-hand difficulties are greater than those of the 
right hand. Here, as in No. 46, it is advisable to take 
the groups of thirty-seconds as single quarter-notes 
until they can be played accurately in tune. Then, of 
course, they should be practiced as written, and played 
entirely from the wrist. 

In most editions it is indicated the No. 51 be played 
“At the point, with very short strokes.” But the study 
is of infinitely greater benefit to the student if he 
takes it at the frog and repeats the down bow after 
each rest. The notes themselves offer little difficulty, 
so ‘the student can concentrate on the flexibility of 
his wrist and on keeping his right elbow at the same 
level as the frog of the bow. 

Rather formidable problems of intonation and 
rhythm confront the pupil in No. 56: the key is not 
an easy one, there are many awkward shifts, and the 
rhythmic patterns on thS ( Continued on Page 170) 



Music and Study 

How to 7 each the Adult 

2 as my pu P iI a married man 
twenty-four years old who hfls grQwn 

He h ! , mUS 1 A a family and lear ns quickly 5 
He has a fine memory but does not care 
much about performing. But he would like 
to teach piano, s0 he wants to learn all 
about music. He cannot sight read, and be- 

hhsToa'l I ha , 116 , 6 hC thinks he can '‘ "'ike 
nis goal. I hate to give this man babv stuff 

and I should like to have you advise nie as 
to how to handle the case.-T. B 


Conducted by 

J(aJ W QeUeni, WU 2)oc. 

thf'« Y f Ur pupU evidentIy ne e d s some of 
the material now available that Is written 
especially for adult beginners. I advise 
you to go to some of the music stores 
Uiere in New York and ask to see such 

wmoT ;, y0U d0n,t flnd what you want, 
Pttb “ 8hers of The Etude and 
“‘ a ta ( to send you a package of ma- 
terial suitable for adult beginners. Prob- 
„ jj T thl f man wiI1 Progress very rapidly 

teHai 1 ad l 1Se y ° U t0 su PP J ement the ma- 
la m ns study book with the sight- 
playing of hymn tunes, easy folk songs 
and very easy little pieces, playing each 
one only once or twice and then going on 
to another even though it is not any- 

DUt Wm e y PerfeCt AS 80011 85 P'»sible 

of the N?,n S ° me ° f the Sl0w movem ents 
Kuhlau sonatinas or the Haydn 
sonatas— or other “adult" material. 

I suggest further that you ask vnnr 

Ear^F-v Purchase a c °Py “Harmony for 
f h /; E J e ’ and Keyboard" (Heacox) , and 

2 1° through the lessons with 

him Give him some dictation too, and if 
he has not read any music history, urge 
turn to get Theodore Finney’s “History of 
Music and study it carefully. 

or A le.« t th t e dentS n ? d t0 g ° through more 
oi- less the same steps as children and 

yet the whole thing may be presented 

rom an adult standpoint, and the steps 

ehud May usually be much longer than 
lv 8 steps ordinarily are. I am great- 

numher 68 * f d 111 having a vcry much larger 

studv nf gl ’° Wn People take UP the 
y of a musical instrument not in 
order to become performers or toachers 

learning how to handle them Tt i & d 

entirely different Pem ’ rt ls an 

. y uurerent piobiem from that nf 

2 if, S’ s r :r;r m 

and methods if heiftoh 011 b ° th material 
i he is to be successful in it 

Afcouf Mozarts Sonatas 

teen pialo'sonata^i^ the‘ orTeTot "2 

difficulty? an<1 aIS ° m the order °f their 

tended fo^exercises 6 ^^/ 5 andFugues in- 
Priate recital pieoe s ?'-Metle. ^ appro ' 

Mozart’^ piano e sonnt 1P °' Sible to arran &e 
their greatness, TnTZ 2 !"** ° f 
ever agree upon such a fet Tf° i 't- V ° UW 
that Mozarf ILSt * ls known 

fond of two of them W th ParticularI r 
(K. 279) and the one S n ^ °o fi ® “ C 
often plaved thpm u ■ D (K - 284 > , and 

ones’ thafS ££ filing arfthe 

<K. 332), B-fl a t major * maj0r 

| (K. 457) , F major (K wi 333) ’ C minor 

(K. 576) These f, 33> ’ and D ma J° r 
rnese facts may, perhaps, give 

most popular All nf th* 31 least tIle 
ever are nf in ,, V he sonatas , how- 

are all written in ti,„ y ' lnese sonatas 

and all present the samH prXmTnS’ 
ly, perfect technical control f 
enunciation, and delicacv nf nh c anty of 
nuance. Those in c 2 aDd 

S.'S 4 T ^ 
<0, Sic3 c ,7ud“'S,» rr, bMto 

ludes and Fugues and 22 ach Pre ‘ 
very appropriate ’for recital 22 **** 
are often so used Barb, I 1 , P es ’ and 
did not consider thee* hlmseIf » however, 
either potat of v e w k°? OSitions fro ™ 

amnged the to ToTiuSes 0 ?™ “* 

Tempered Clavichord" to S how to® We “- 

ticality of the system of equal 2,2°' 
ment in tuning. Manv nfT te mpera- 
and fugues had i,»»n ° f these Preludes 
these volumes were organTzed^b p f ° re 
and in several instances he traLmA 
and even rewrote them to fit t ^ 5ed 
Pose. At least part of those that Wi 
previously written may have been 


STpST Were Witten e « y "r k 

Professor Emeritus 
Oberlin College 
Music Editor. Webster’s New 
International Dictionary 

Shall Patricia Learn Theorv 

T oo? 

• Pa ^hcia is nine-and-a-half veir*; niri 

was Sx h |L taken p , iano '“sons since she 
Fire £>ancf a hn? s nfkt y DC FaIte ’ s Rltual 

teacher is givine her h* mctronome ' Her 
practice with L Vemoy ° p ' 120 to 
the regular f mint met , ronome instead of 

e 3,50 

taughM^ho^ 1 ^’ ° r Can »e 

UU 3 ion V a h nd Te^in^l^v 0 ! y °° r No- 

mony fo r Eye Ear o£ " Har - 

4 What ,-c. ’• uf’ anc ^ K e yboard , ”> 

one .earn it? -D D . readme ' and '‘™ can 

and I will try to enlightwi at> ° Ut Patricia - 
some of the things fbout wto COncernin g 
But I cannot toil aD0Ut whlc h you ask. 

your teacher ough/to What 

this particular child Most the Case of 
believe that the pipil oulT tn°l teaChers 
basic items of thenrv 1 learn the 
sicianship as he eapJ i ai ' d general mu- 
stead of merely learnim-T^ , and tllat in - 
he ought to be studvirf to P ay the piano 
guage SO that hi“ dy ^ music aa a lan- 

^ 1U cx5tana 

Play or sing. Therefom fb “ Wel1 ai 
Pupils the scales nnrt l they teach t] 

^ the basL of C s ^ f gnature s, - 

courage them to' T knowled ge they 

Piecestoto v^usSrf their ea -' 

Playing them i n the Tevf 3d ° f alw ' 
are Witten. They sh ? Which « 
melody i s built of them how 

a °me a little differem^ R ° me ali 

different; and the n,?\ thers en tir 
come aware of tho pu P ] ^ therefore t 
The, the 3™ 

of the music by clapnin 661 the rhyth 

and this enables them to g i W EWingir 

freedom and therefore with ^ W ‘ th mo 
SIOn .' and of course !l th 1 ” ore ex Pre 

Phrase rhythm as well as f teaCh the 

showing them how them f Ufe rhytb r 
the printed page ren mu sical score c 

(T}ley -illKS’T^^hofthes 

^ a8k their Pupi.s Ph t r o aSe o -- klllg 3 h 



““ u aynamics 

sometimes they let the ' lcatl °ns, an , 
tempo a bit if he mtoLT' Cha 4 S 
that way. And of course the f p Unds better 
pupils, in due time, to leS ? Pect the* 
musical score. 11 to read the 

All these things and man,, 
the pupil learn if he is a y ® ore »Uist 
little musician instead of into a 

be merely a litUe pupL u nuin « to 
strings. But each teacher h ked by 
method of going at all these mat/ 1 * 5 °"’ n 
it is not for me to .suggest e d 8 ' atlcl 
method or the materiais to L , ther the 
teacher in the case of V? ^ by a 
pupil. However, my replies to L, PartlclUar 
questions may enlighten both ^ SPecific 
the teacher with reference to y ° U and 
these matters; Ce to som e 0 f 

1. Music thonn, _ . 

1. Music theory is a bmoa * 
covers more or less everythtof t s I ' m that 
sic as contrasted with ni*., g about mu - 
m. n inciuj S“ 
and terminology, harmony, cojnto^ 011 
form, orchestration and 1 pouit . 
sions of these. Sometime! 
singing and ear trainim, uries in sight 
under the heading of theory w lndUded 

work is connected so because such 
study of notation. But .% f ar^ th the 
child Is concerned, muslcffiil your 
mostly of the things that ^ COnsists 
gested in my first paru«- a „h SUg ' 
probably Patricia's teacher h a. If’ ^ 
made a satisfactory beginning d 
of these. g mn g on some 

* ” h «t, , he 

the amount of the inhln ’ alth ° Ugh 

the case of hht nh rltanc e varies in 
fun of , different individuals. Tliis 

tmimnTS ^ '^rieZ'Z 

2 ftehahH, *? P ‘ ay at a steady tempo, 
The tonmf ! a8e 18 de flnhely harmful, 
the perform! °\ Ule , metronome is to help 
tempo as Hi * t° determine the correct 
the editor , direoted b y the composer (or 

anv m2 ’ “ nd U has but ut Ue value in 
any other respect. 

either book *2. oertain of the price of 
two dollar^’ beheve they cost about 
S the rt f aCh - They may b e obtained, 

itahemoTS^E.’ t,irough the 

is 4 m !ft readine in ‘he case of music 
of Znl 6 SEme as the si eht reading 

music tiw 6 11 If looking at a P a S e of 
Dlavino- ^ 006 bas not Performed, and 
tellicend ° r u nging> accurately and in- 
O g , 7 wh at the symbols stand for. 
learn e f rns 10 read music just as one 
to nr „ “f to read language— by intelligent 
11 old I! you tried to teach six-year- 

‘ d thtm a v2 n 10 read English by giving 

l_ ,. volume of Shakespeare to practice 
T Simiiifl WOUld P rob ubly get discouraged. 

S innci \ I' you P lace difficult, involved 
y to efore a ohild who is just beginning 
3 ahto t 40 Play or sing - he will not be 
*' thp vp grasp it- But if you begin with 
y all,, Iy easie st music and proceed gradu- 
' a ihm 80met hing a little harder and still 
' JT 5 harder - your child— if she has a 
1 a, ci,p m , lnd ~ Wi11 learn to read music just 
' first v, earned to read English when she 
1 t0 sch001 - But let the teacher 

on h, Ce , rta ! n that the beginning is made 
evpn 6 2 is of the very easiest music, 
had | 3S 4 u° Eirst Grade teacher in school 

pasip , ei begln on the basis of the very 
easiest words and sentences. 

• * * 

n„ C “ a!m °st all we have of heaven 

on earth.”— ADDISON. 


Music and Study 

Business on the Side 

A Philadelphia Business Man Who Organized His Own Symphony 
Orchestra “For the Joy of Conducting’’ Makes Business His Avocation 

From a Conference with 

Wax X 


Conductor, Philadelphia “Pops” Orchestra 


M Leon was born in Chelm, near Lublin, Poland, October 10, 
roo4 He had no organized musical instruction in his native 
| d He studied violin with local teachers but by far the 
Hater part of his work was done by self-study, from books. 
M's family did not want him to become a musician and dis- 
couraged his progress by refusing to pay for lessons. When 
h was sixteen he came to America alone, not so much with 
the idea of making his fortune, but with that of following 
, . |j ea | 0 f becoming a musician. When he sailed to America 
he spent all that he had, other than his passage money, for 
new violin. He faced the New World with nothing more 
formidable than this violin. In order to gratify his lofty 
ambition to go ahead in music he realized that it was first 
necessary to make a fortune. He had a brother in Philadel- 
nhia who was a candy maker and thus he entered that 
business. By reason of hard labor, enterprise, and originality, 
he found himself at the age of thirty years (in 1934) the 
president of a sizable candy manufacturing company. Mean- 
while, he organized small ochestras devoted largely to 
popular music, as a part of a process in teaching himself 
more about the instruments of the orchestra and the art of 

At the same time he went once a week to New York to study 
conducting with Paul Breisach, of the Metropolitan Opera 
Company. He also studied with Martin Rich of The Curtis 
Institute of Music, Philadelphia. In addition, he did an enor- 
mous amount of self-study, through books and scores, ac- 
cumulating a large personal library which also includes a 
vast collection of the world's great music on records. His 
ideas upon the relation of music to life are distinctive and 
indicate what may be accomplished in a relatively short time, 
with proper enterprise and experienced .direction. 

— Editor's Note. 

« | ^ VERY man, at the beginning of his career, has 
the opportunity to look ahead and determine 
I -/ how he wishes his life course to proceed. It is 
necessary for him to make money, to some extent, in 
order to live. Now the question is, how shall he look 
upon this problem? Surely, making money is not the 
end and aim of human existence! If this were the 
case, life would be a very drab and useless thing. Music, 
and the power of music to bring beauty and joy and 
human uplift to others has been my innate ambition 
from the start. I feel sorry for the man who gives all 
of his thought and energy to making money for his 
own selfish gratification and wastes it upon useless 
extravagances and what, in many cases, is cheap dis- 
sipation of the gifts that the Almighty gave him. 

“It is a good thing for a man to know his own lim- 
itations, because in this way he can work incessantly 
and prepare himself for better things. I worked very 
hard to make myself a conductor who would be ac- 
ceptable to a group of the best musicians I could enlist. 
This is the way I went about it. First, I engaged six 
men from The Philadelphia Orchestra. We came to- 
gether and I outlined my objectives to them. They 

were to make up an orchestra that would bring enter- 
tainment of the higher type of popular music, that at 
the same time was good music, to returning wounded 
veterans, and to hospitals. (The orchestra now num- 
bers eighty-five, all from The Philadelphia Orchestra, 
including “first chair” leaders.) First of all, I had to 
learn from the orchestra whether I was acceptable to 
them. We had some rehearsals and I told the men that 
I had no idea of introducing symphonic music until 
I knew enough about conducting such music to do it 
with confidence and credit. They were enthusiastic. 
During the war our orchestra’s aim was to give really 
worthy programs of inspiriting music in veterans’ hos- 
pitals. Among the groups visited were the Thomas 
England General Hospital and the Army Ground and 
Service Forces, both at Atlantic City; the U. S. Naval 
Hospital, Swarthmore; the U. S. Naval Hospital, Phila- 
delphia; and the Valley Forge General Hospital, 
Phoenixville, Pennsylvania.* 

“At the conclusion of the war the enthusiasm of the 
audiences convinced me that Philadelphia should have 
a fine 'Pops’ orchestra, such as those which are now 
supplying an important need in other cities. The con- 

certs were to be confined to light classics. There are 
and always will be millions of people who might be 
uncomfortable at a severely classical concert but who 
are overjoyed to hear the light classics effectively 
played by the best obtainable musicians. Up to this 
time there was only one permanent ‘Pops’ orchestra 
in America, the Boston ‘Pops.’ After ours was estab- 
lished, several others were started. The organization 
and management of such an orchestra is a serious busi- 
ness undertaking and is no plaything for amateurs. 

“At our November concert in the Academy of Music, 
Philadelphia, we had eighty-one men in the orchestra 
and as soloists. The rental of the Academy is five 
hundred and fifty dollars. The cost of the orches- 
tra for two rehearsals is about $4,000. The price of 
the soloist may range from ( Continued on Page 180) 

* Mr. Leon received grateful thanks from the patients, the American Red 
Cross, and all the veterans’ organizations for these heart-warming con- 
certs. On June 27, 1945, he had an orchestra of one hundred at the 
Academy of Music for a war bond concert. The house was crowded to 
capacity and brought in receipts of a million and a half dollars. For this 
contribution he received the following citation: ‘In appreciation of 
services and patriotic cooperation rendered in behalf of the War Finance 
Program, this citation is awarded to Max Leon, giveruthis 7th day of 
July. 1945. — U. S. Treasury.” 

Photo- Associates 


^^PHolo 8 Acknowledge the enthusiastic appreciation of The audience. 

Woritt* , . ... 

Wid e 

after the concert at the Academy of Music, Philadelphia, last 




A' the 


a P 

Acad *»y o 



«' 1 

Ure P'fH’ wotket* 


p hil ad 


MARCH. 1947 



Music and Study 

The Technique of Arriving 

From a Conference with 

tZudolpL Q 


Eminent Virtuoso Pianist and Conductor 
President of the Chicago Musical College 

mm ‘ **'***«■* ™ t„e ETtlDE Br , vv< „, x mmom 

D TnT?e U nf NOW anyone wh0 is not trying to 
a me at some destination? There are few 

srjxs x r " 

clerk, and the stenopmnho brickla y er , the store 

Each year large cities liL hewYoTranrcm 10118 - 

SZ highho m pe 0f f o y r OU r^o m A iC M ° St ° 4 4b - 

many were ‘‘bi shoJ- i/ffi? iU the big 4 °wn, for 
The first year in th P ft t( T S they Ief4 behind, 
second year may reveal thh n Jf y be frui4ful -‘ bu t the 
in a large city besTde t hemi^ re t" 6 ° ther m usicians 
petition comes from all of thn^' Re , aI muslcal com- 
the most gifted from every Sgle stldto^ 0 re P r6Sent 
music in the country and it wfi h o A . 0r schoQl of 
“top pupil” who wifi’ turn out to he " or the 

may come from Los AiwL v to be a Performer. He 

He does not have to be a tranZ T° fk ’ ° r Kalam azoo. 
but he can be a local a district con t Jn ental performer; 
or western artist who will apnTal and n ’ “ idWestern ' 

3 T^m 65 ’ and be e ^PPed to leach 8 "* Ple3SUre 

having the^hf to^do ' soAtT* "* A 3 Career withou t 
be frank, and honest He UP t0 the teacher to 

nice talent, and you will be ^ S3y ’ Y ° U have a ver y 
wm be able to perfoTm- or -Aou T" teacber wba 
public performance r You bave a flair for 

itself to popular shccesl ” fL ^ Wl11 Iend 
tamiy add, “to get to the tA teacher should cer- 

very hard, ’and you Sll hav^ ^ toJw • haV6 . to Work 
like a soldier.” 40 4ake disappointments 

It was Paderewski who said “Tt .. 
get there; but it is w dim ai ,.\ 14 seems so easy to 
arrive, but those who arrivelh™, i tay there -” A few 
luck are invariably slowed d U! ? b a s troke of good 
steps in. It took 500 000 piantotTto by someth mg that 
100,000 violinists to make a H^ifett 3 Paderewskf ’ 
cellists to make a Casals and a ?f ife * z > a sood 50,000 
to make a Carusl. ’ 3t leMt 3 million singers 

ents. Some^'have^ arrived^some 1 h ^ 7 wonderful tal- 
others have gone astray I woul/sav^h^ atU1 * and 
Portion among ten gifted <;t„I, d f y that the Pro- 
ambition for l career womd be th^ 16 a11 of their 
marry early. Now these three have fde ° f f 6m wU1 

arrives. 6 ^ 3 

a recital. Sng^^whi^tedlnf ^ giVe 

ttsttvstSS s 

did not go on with her cS disappointed that she 
Pleasure of entertaining you at a 1 have the 

three children will play a Trio bvZ° P ?’ Where my 
I see that you have - by Mozar t.” I replied 
This will be far more sattoSfS y0Ur Wh ° le family ’ 
than had you continued to b P S PV -f°d m the long run . 
playing.” Ued to be exc 'ted about your own 

ness or physicafhandica^s. 1116 ^ careers because of ill- 

tezineVor Stability to wtSV^T® of acut e 

-s it is lack of 

b Out d o1 0 the e h ° me ’ and ifcs ea rly training. 

Th?remafnin°g 1S1 (?i wSi? W6 haVe three (3 > 

careers if two (2) of them h^ 6 re a4ively successful 

can demonstrate aualifvUf b t ecome g °° d teachers who 

derstand proportion and - Speech ’ m ' 

and thei/ background sCl^ “ Plan ° playing : 

than just musical. The remaining 0 ” 13 *” 101-6 general 
lne remaining pianist or tenth (10) 


may combine concert , 

th» «„ stre ngt C? K t2f, ™ « 

to appear publicly. ’ and a PPease his desire 

good living in their private st^ ^ 3 are ma kinTa 
can supplement his income as f d today - A Pianist 
every symphony orcheTa hJ ° hUrCh orga nist, and 
pianist. Let us not forgeAhe t ^ g00d Job for i 
accompanists. They are needed^? Seld open for good 
everywhere. needed by Performing artfeto 


All radio stations employ pianists for both 
classical playing, and motion picture K t.fd? ng an d 
recording studios must engage good rou ttoe,’ and 
There is also a new trend in some of the A playe rs. 
in the larger cities to “allow” a guest nian.-J 7 art caf es 
his classical repertoire. Planist 40 feature 

The Child Prodigy 

I feel that all child prodigies are born fivp 
soon, we have had too many of them 1 3R ^ 
careers because they were appreciated before th Short 
ready to be appreciated. It is unfortunate thld tbey Wer e 
must have parents, for many wonderfnl to, P ™ dlgie ^ 
been lost on account of the egotistical f have 

parents. They so often exploit their c£S? P ° the 
monetary reasons in mind, and then LI™*® with 
scrupulous manager who generally finilhef U “' 
and the prodigy. The juice of the tallnft he job - 
out before the fruit is ripe. talent Ls squeezed 

Todaj', the standards of excellencv „ , 
are so distinct that a few years in Lp f H Perf0nnanc ’ e 
It is better to prepare slowly for what to ” 0t C0Unt ' 
your first initial step. ft at is considered 

Teaching the Child to Arrive 
Through Musical Happiness 

what greater happiness could .mi. „ 
child has learned to express him if a . paren4 whose 
estly, through a musical iLSn ’ ^ mod ' 

progress, and see his haiiDv 1 Watch his 

accomplished what he When he ha ^ 

To hear him speak of things fanciful nnli Stbdied for! 
The willingness to achieve the desire ^ ^ tangible - 
of those who can do somethin* 5° bec °me one 

inconspicuous will not be wasted ^d 13 n" 1 h ° WeVer 
soul will rise to speak to others ' ° S6 fragile 

**£ ~ 

SSJSL-w £“ 

little ones participate in '' e f USe to let his 
which has taken hold of ^ur Mtion' movement 
not aspire to push hto chlto d parent should 
monetary resulto from him h.'n? tha ' lle wln have 
the enjoyment of music which L w.s Ught ' CWld ^ 

r d Co,or 

have culture There is n a certain degree means to 
begin to teach X ^ El™™* cuUura - So lets 
terpretation to the child/™ 1 * 51 . 13111 pnnci P Ie s of in- 
moment. the Chddren at the earliest possible 

mandingattemtoif during' means of com - 

trast the secret of nro^.m perf 1 °f mance ? Is not con- 
teach the small child th e m3king? Why no4 then 
effects of forte and ene rgetic and vivifying 

Thus the child begins , s ° othln S blessings of piano ? 
which is around us the 111 4wo wor lds, the one 
worth-while one which d® ‘n 3rd ° ne ’ and the more 
"■e call our inward one w WUhln us a «d which 
broken chord, arpeggio VCr , y httle exercise, scale, 
be studied in both forir , lp I a ’ sk ‘ p ’ and so on should 
from the start that deadlv en^ 3 ” 0 ’ thus elim inating 
that compromising go-between personalit y, mf, 
ference, of hesitation mn • *1’ tbat apostle of indif- 
Any child having a cmd?V^ enority cotn Plexes. 
distinctly opposite expression^ ability to Portray two 
ciple of contrast and is the f h3S niastered the prin- 
terpretation. in m v humhi eraf ° re on the way to in- 
the technic of contrast is .h b « le4, the conquering of 
self expression. y es anri tbe ? rst st ep to worth-while 
PJght, sun and moon hanli b ack and white, day and 
heath, what riches are Inn 8 and sadne ss, life and 
They command both n»H? tained in these contrasts! 
eternal forcefuiness of p re . and humanity by their 
values. ness of vanety and ever-changing 

I consider: Evenn^of t, 10 technical achievement. 

P aying of any pattern he n* 16 ’ ? y tba4 1 mean the 
b ® same quality of tone wk*? 6 or chor d like, with 
a fes great disdptoi ot £ ° ,0Tte - and Viano. It 

48 nan absolutely corrotl® ^ nd and ear *o main- 
, s Peed” is the nllt ! . ° ntinui4y of tone. 
pIay fast - Pew only caoHnf ^ s4udent - Many can 
is to Study slowly and , their speed - My ad ' 
y and ( Continued on Page 168 > 





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MARCH 1947 f.r.y 


J- s. BACH 

Arranged by Henry Levine 


This luscious th Prom "SUITE No. 3 in D” 

ey of C. TheeightTnoteVin IhTlefi ^ T ^ ° String focviolin > is one of Bach’s most loved works. Arranged forgiano, it appears h« • 

hand accompaniment are usually played staccato (never“jerky ”) throughout, and this contra^ h *' ein the 

4 beautvof ti<# WQrj£ Bach , fatW tau J fat / ohn Seba f tian the violin Tad hi V* th « 

> ne played the 


Adagio (<A =63) 


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Many Etude readers will be fascinated with this piece of musical sentiment, which is essentially pianist ic in every respect. Theveryeffective cl i- 
max at theend of the middlesection may be madeasdramaticasthe performer’s technic permits. It should be sonorous without any suggestion of 
“pounding.” Grade 5. 


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MARCH 1947 ' it? 


The movement of the mill wheel must always be observed in the background of this composition. The composer has done a fine piece of work here 
in indicating' the subtle accents in the left hand. Pedal as indicated, and do not permit it to be blurred at any point. Grade 3. 



e p lay ed w Uh gr^aU imTlc c I racy^ r^deT * b ’ enef ‘ Cial t0 students ^ ho have difficulty in forming stable tune and rhythm concepts. It of course must 

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Thismtlem , LADY in organdy 

With grace. Grade 2-3 °^' U ‘ lDSty ,e 15 80 exceedingly simple and yet so fresh that it will be welcomed by many. It should be played w j 

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II |k<: 


Words and Music h, 


1. How can I ev-er bear the 

2. How can I ev-er bear the 

a tempo 



When ev - ’ry green and ev 
When each day’b love - li- 


ness will 

mg thing Will speak; of you? 

y bring The thought of you? 

Copyright MCMXLVI by Oliver Ditsom Company 

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MARCH 1947 


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Ped: Ifi'toSw. 

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Andante espressivo 

And so through .all the length of days 
Thy goodness faileth never; 

Good Shepherd, may I sing Thy praise 
Within Thy house forever! 

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Andante con moto 



Arr. by Clarence Kohl man 

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Copyright MCMXLVI by Oliver Ditson Company 
MARCH 1947 

International Copyright secured 







...... " ONE MAN 'S FAMILY" 

No. *7477 


Copyright mi by 


PAUL CARSON piano solo 


+ 27698 










Andante espressivo ( cn . 

1712 Chestnut Si. 
PH1LA. 1, PA. 


TK»odo»« P> 

Copyright 19*5 by Thiodore Pi 



Pianist’s Page 

( Continued from Page 136) 

lovine without confidence a few 
only P lay “ * wh0 despaired of everplay- 

years ago. nQW perf0 rm authorita- 

m r .n ’ well, and what is more irnpor- 
tive ‘ y have become happy, well adjusted 
ta H ant human beings who in their turn 
Spreading the gospel to hundreds of 

other young people. 

4. "Exam" Tension 

when students complain of the tension 
J? ^ under at school examination 
ZL tell them that their music can 
rive them relaxation and rest at these 
Sods instead of added tension. Advise 
SSL to “knock off” a little while several 
limes a day from their exam-cramming 
n bo to the piano; assure them that they 
vvUl return refreshed to their studying, 
able to “cram" twice as quickly and 

surely | 

Why do so many doctors, mathe- 
maticians, and scientists study music 
seriously if not to relieve their mind’s 
strain from the concentrated problems 
which they must face? . . . Impress this 
on your students. 

Treat them lightly at “exam” times. 
Do not require memorization or con- 
centrated technic, make no demands for 

perfection or finish During these days 

Tvincf Vio frw fun nnrl relaxa- 

some easy sight reading, a “popular song” 
or sentimental radio tune, simple im- 
provising, and so forth. 

5. Genius 

Someone has, alas, debunkea the fa- 
miliar definition of genius by stating that 
the “infinite capacity for taking pains” 
is a contradiction. If you take pains you 
are straining yourself, but if you have 
infinite capacity, nothing can be a strain 
to you. . . . Hm-m! . . . That’s probably 
right! . . . 

And as to our convenient escape-word, 
“Inspiration,” let’s not forget that it 
never occurs except as the reward of 
strenuous work. 

6. A Young Man's Credo 

Many persons have asked me to print 
the “credo” sent me during the war by 
a young twenty year old soldier friend 
from the wilds of New Guinea. Here it is: 

“I don't know it all, but I know a little 
enough to learn more; and I can’t help 
but feel that the eternal quest after 
knowledge and understanding is the only 
worthwhile calling in life. . . . That’s my 
religion; and as a religion determines the 
course of a willful existence, so shall that 
attitude become the inspiration of my 

What's the Name, Please? 

Uj Wifiiam 

I N LISTING compositions for recital 
programs why not give the first name 
of the composer as well as his family 
name? I have two names, so probably do 
you, and so in all probability do most of 
our pupils. It will make the composers of 
the recital pieces seem much more real 
and close to the audience if they are listed 
by their complete names. 

One of our important duties is to make 
students realize that music is written by 
real, live, flesh-and-blood people, not 
mythical, legendary beings. The posses- 
sion of both a “first” and a “last” name 
makes anyone seem close, real, down-to- 

Socrates had just one name, it is true, 
and so apparently did Nebuchadnezzar, 
Tutankhamen, and Moses, but we must 
not place music in the remote antiquity 
which these great names suggest. There 
are probably people in this world who 
think that Beethoven lived about the 
time the Pyramids were built; such a 
notion can be prevented at the source — 
or quickly destroyed if already formed 
—by simply giving the man his full name. 
It makes him seem more of a “regular 
fellow.” Therefore on a program of a 
student’s recital it is often advisable to 
follow the name of the composer with the 
date of his birth and of his death, thus 
Camille Saint-Saens (1835-1921). 

^ ere a re more practical reasons than 
hese— reasons that pertain to the best 
educated of us. in the case of a little- 
nown composer, merely mentioning his 
. , st name is hardly better than not 
aentifying him at all. The full name in- 
oduces him; the last name alone is 
Th ^ a . name an d nothing more, 
tho Cre st, dl a better reason. Although 
re seerns to be only one Beethoven, 

march, 1947 

one Brahms, one Chopin, and one De- 
bussy, there are other names in music 
which seem to occur again and again. 
Some of these names, and the number of 
people possessing them who can be called 

to mind off-hand, are: 

Bach At least 5 

Handel or Handl 2 

Mozart 2 

Puccini S 

Haydn 2 

Schubert (not including Shobert and 

Schuberth) 3 

Schumann or Schuman 4 

Mendelssohn 3 

Wagner 4 

Couperin At least 3 

Franck or Frank . 
Strauss or Straus 




Giordani or Giordano At least 3 

Scarlatti 3 

Nevin 4 

Rogers or Rodgers 4 

Griffes or Griffis 2 

Williams (or more) 4 

Thompson or Thomson (perhaps more) 9 

Rubinstein 4 

Stamitz 3 

This list could be prolonged, or the fig- 
ures enlarged, by use of reference books. 
Opening “Grove’s Dictionary” at random 
disclosed a page listing six composers 
named Schmid, Schmidt, or Schmitt, just 
as an example. 

Please remember that Solfeggietto, The 
Bee, Under the Double Eagle, and Oh 
Worship the King were not written by 
Bach, Schubert, Wagner, and Haydn re- 
spectively, but by lesser men who hap- 
pened to possess these famous names. 

Portrait of a 


Early ancestor of the piano was the Monochord, a key- 
less instrument "consisting of a string running over a 
long, narrow calibrated sound-box”. Pitch of tone was 
determined by placing a bridge at the points of calibration. 

Originally used to give pitch, the Monochord became a 
playing instrument about the 12th Century. First evidence 
of it with multiple strings dates from the 14th Century. 

The sequence of improvement to multiple strings led 
in turn to the evolution of a keyboard to make playing 
easier. The Clavichord, originally also called a Monochord, 
was a natural development. 

Even in a modern piano like the Jesse 

French, improvements contribute 
to fine musical qualities and beauty. 

You’ll appreciate this when you sit 
at the keyboard of a Jesse French 

. . .just as you’ll appreciate the fine 
furniture styling given it by famed 
Alfons Bach. Here is a piano you can 
recommend without hesitation, 
secure in the knowledge it will attract 
the pupil . . . give parents long 

lasting pride of ownership. 







A varied selection of interesting ar- 
rangements which will add to the 
pleasure of duet playing. 20£ a copy. 

3738 Anitra's Dance, Am-4 Grieg 

3503 Aragonaise, G-3 Massenet 

2988 Black Hawk Waltz, Eb-3 Walsh 

3124 Country Gardens, F-3 Traditional 

3085 The Dancers, G-2 Greenwald 

3078 Elizabeth Waltz, C-1 Martin 

2933 First Rose of Spring, C-1 Hopkins 

3504 General Grant's March, F-3 Moc/c 

3739 Hungarian Dance No. 5, Gm-4 Brahms 

923 Intermezzo, Cavalleria, F-4 Mascagni 

935 Little Fairy March, G-2 Sfreabbog 

1827 March, Prophete, D-3 Meyerbeer 

1840 March Militaire. D-3 Schubert 

2987 March of the Boy Scouts, C-1 Martin 

3499 Merry Widow Waltz, F-2 Lehar 

3500 Old Moss Covered Church, C-2. . .Hopkins 

3505 Poem, C-3 Fibich 

941 Poet and Peasant Overture, D-4 Suppe 

3740 Polonaise Militaire, AS Chopin 

1929 Priests’ March, Athalia, F-4. .Mendelssohn 

1983 Rosamund, Ballet Music, G-3 Schubert 

3502 Skaters' Waltz, C-2 Waldteufel 

3741 Song of India, G-4 Rimsky-Korsakoff 

945 Spanish Dance No. I, C-4 MoszkowskI 

3507 Tales from the Vienna Woods, C-3. .Strauss 

3742 Two Guitars, Dm-4 arr. James 

3743 Waltz of the Flowers, D-4 Tschaikowsky 

949 Zampa Overture, D-S Herold 

Ask your dealer for Century music. If he 
cannot supply you, send your order direct 
to us. Our complete catalog listing over 
3800 numbers is FREE on request. 


47 West 63rd Street, New York 23, N. Y. 

/fufUMdccment / 



We now have a Limited Reprint Supply of our 
acute paper shortage, no more reprints will be 
available this year. 


( Orders shipped same day as received) 

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Write Mack Starm, Dept. E 


475 Fifth Ave. New York 17. N. V, 

Chest Support 
in Singing 

(.Continued from Page 135) 

to it, and because of an instinctive fall- 
ing into the line of least resistance, hence 
greater freedom and ease. 

The writer knew an Italian teacher 
who, when the pupils tone showed signs 
of strain, would exclaim “No vowel! No 
vowel!” and immediately and instinctively 
the pupil would change from “ah" to “u.” 

All three exercises are to be sung first 
staccato and then legato; the staccato- 
song tones to be struck downward to the 
chest, and the legato-sung tones to follow 
exactly in their footsteps. 

The tone resultant from staccato sing- 
ing is the most lofty and purest tone pro- 
ducible. Also it is the only tone that can- 
not be produced under force, and hence, 
it is the only tone that is produced in 
accordance with the construction of the 
individual vocal apparatus. Therefore, in 
starting with staccato-sung tones and 
planting the tegrato-sung tones in their 
footsteps, we are producing and sustain- 
ing a truly natural tone. But there is 
something else. When directing tone 
downward to the chest, the lighter reso- 
nance of the head must not be dominated 
by the heavier resonance of the chest. A 
natural smile is sufficient protection 
against this, but we are not sure that the 
smile will be natural. Therefore, to make 
doubly sure, the lofty and pure quality 
of the staccato - sung tone should be well 
impressed upon the mind before singing 
the exercises legato. 

The Subconscious Mind Aids 

But, if the mind cannot be fixed on two 
different things at the same time, how 
can the lofty, pure quality of the stac- 
cato-sung tone be kept in mind while 
directing the tone downward to the chest? 
Ideas connected with things of great 
value to us are most readily and quickly 
impressed upon, and stored away in the 
subconscious mind. Therefore, since in 
singing, pure tone is of the greatest value 
and, in the present case, the preservation 
of a lofty quality of tone while directing 
downward to the chest is essential to the 
end in view, the lofty quality of the stac- 
cato-sung tone is readily and quickly im- 
pressed upon and finally established in 
the subconscious mind, while the con- 
scious mind is busily engaged in directing 
the tone downward to the chest. And so, 
through starting with staccato - sung tones 
and planting the legato-sung tones in 
their footsteps, neither the lighter reso- 
nance of the head nor the deeper, fuller 
resonance of the chest predominates, and 
finally “natural or chest-voice" and “arti- 
ficial or head voice" become united and 

Having established this equalization, it 
is as far as the two registers of “the 
greatest singers the world has ever 
known” can take us. The new position of 
the larynx, and the vocal bands, have 
done all that normally can be done to 
give depth and fullness to low tone. 

If the vocal apparatus is constructed 
for deep, full tone, that tone will come 
naturally. If the vocal apparatus is not so 
constructed, then, to satisfy preference 
for such tone we shall have to resort to 
Garcia’s sensational use of “chest-voice” 
with its inartistic result, and to Garcia’s 
son’s “third register” with its pronounced 

“break” and resultant masculine-like 
quality of tone. 

And now the final thought. It may be 
taken for granted that in the day of “the 
greatest singers the world has ever 
known,” a full expansion of the ribs was 
a second order of the day, for, since the 
resonance of the chest was used to rein- 
force the resonance of the head, expan- 
sion of the chest permitted the lungs also 
to expand, thus greatly increasing the 
amount of sounding air in the lungs to 
reinforce that head resonance. 

Therefore we should see to it that, 
whether singing, standing, sitting or 
walking, the chest is elevated, and the 
shoulders back and down. 

Recognition for Army, 
Navy, and Marine 

(Continued from Page 128) 

which are usually associated with 
the requisite qualifications for com- 
missioned status, and 

5. WHEREAS, The present rank of 
Army band leaders, that of Warrant 
Officers, places them in an inferior 
position to doctors, lawyers, dentists, 
veterinarians, financial, welfare, and 
recreational personnel, all of the 
foregoing having commissioned sta- 
tus with promotional opportunities, 
in some instances to Major General, 

6. WHEREAS, Such inferior position 
for Army band leaders is incon- 
sistent with the relative position of 
similarly qualified leaders in civilian 
life with the other professions, and 

7. WHEREAS, Such discrimination in 
career opportunities will deprive the 
Peace Time Army of the very type 
of American musicians who could 
impress upon the people of occupied 
territories overeas, the high cultural 
attainment of our nation, and 

8. WHEREAS, The inferior position of 
the band leaders of the United States 
Army has become a matter of na- 
tional concern and an intolerable 


1. Appropriate action be taken forth- 
with by the Congress and the Presi- 
dent of the United States to create 
commissioned status for all band 
leaders of The United States Army, 
The Army of the United States, the 
National Guard and The Army Re- 

2. Commissioned status for Army band 
leaders shall have rank not lower 
than First Lieutenants with pro- 
motional opportunities based on 
length of service and responsibilities. 



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Voice Questions 


Mo questions will be answered in THE ETUDE unless accompanied by the full name 
and address of the inquirer. Only initials, or pseudonym given, will be published. 

Should She Gargle Her Throa. 

or Four Times Every Day? 

T o!ll am wondering whether the habit of 

-otiva several times daily with salt water 
9 A bicarbonate of soda to ward off throat in- 
(oetinn is injurious in the long run to the stng- 
ing voice. Can you answer that one?— G. S. K. 

A —The membranes that line the cavities of 
the mouth, head and nose, that cover the 
Slate-pharyngeal muscles and extend down 
P T, +h e larynx are very sensitive. Not only 
“Je they subject to microbie infection, but 
many other abnormal conditions affect them 
disadvantageous^. Sudden changes of temper- 
ature too much smoking, over eating, over 
indulgence in alcoholic drinks, dissipation, and 
ts consequent lack of sleep, and quite a few 
other things may upset the entire mucous sys- 
tem We suggest that if you find you have any- 
thing the matter with your throat, nose, ton- 
sils, or your sinuses, you should consult a 
physician who knows something of the anato- 
my and hygiene of the vocal organs and ask 
him to prescribe for you. In the meantime 
watch your health carefully, get plenty of 
exercise and sleep, and do not put anything 

She Has Three Different Kinds of Pupils 

Q._ / have been a teacher of voice for three 
years and I am still continuing my study and 
coaching. My teacher does not believe in the 
use of exercise books for the voice. She says 
the same results can be accomplished with the 
use of proper songs, with more interest to the 
pupil. Will you please give me your views on 
this subject? 

2— 1 have just started a thirteen-year-old girl 
( soprano ) with an unusual voice for a child. 
What songs or studies would you recommend 
for her? So far she has sung exercises only. 

3— 1 have a twenty-year-old soprano studying 
for church singing. I wanted to give her some 
work in Italian to improve her vowels and 
enunciation, but she refuses to sing anything 
but English. Would you force the issue? She 
is a very odd girl who needs a psychiatrist's 
help as well as that of a singing teacher. She 
is so self conscious and afraid of the simplest 
things; does not want her own sister to hear 
her sing, though she is responsible for her 
taking lessons. Says she knows she can never 
face the public except in her church to which 
she is fanatically attached. Any help you can 
give me will be greatly appreciated. — L. H. O. 

A. — 1 — Of course these things are matters of 
opinion. It is difficult for us to understand how 
a voice can be trained, without the use of 
scales, arpeggios, and vocalises sung upon 
vowel sounds alone. When the voice has been 
sufficiently developed, consonants should be 
added, first an initial consonant and then a 
terminal consonant. In time the pupil will 
achieve sufficient control to be given some sim- 
ple songs but only gradually should she be 
given the more difficult ones. Finally she 
should study the classic songs and operatic 
and oratorio arias. If these things are done in 
the proper order and selected with skill, she 
should by this time be a good singer, if she 
has a voice to begin with, and if she has 
done her share of hard, serious practice, and 
clear unbiased thinking. 

2— Answer number one applies equally to your 
thirteen-year-old soprano. Be most careful that 
you do not try to develop her voice too quick- 
ly. She is only a child after all and the songs 
you give her should not be too difficult for her 
young larynx, nor too complicated for her 
budding intelligence. If she has even a smat- 
tering of Italian you might give her a few of 
the early Italian songs because in the Italian 
language, vowels are so pure and the con- 
sonants so few. We wish you every success 
with her. 

twenty-year-old soprano is a problem 

ndeed. We might remind you of the old prov- 

erb, "You can drive a horse to water but you 
cannot make him drink.” If she makes up her 
mind that she will only sing in English and 
before no other audience than the people of 
her own church, neither you nor any other 
person can make her do so. What good could 
a psychiatrist do? Until of her own volition, 
she makes up her mind to take your advice, 
to study hard and to submit herself to the 
usual normal training of a singer, you cannot 
hope to do much for her. However, do not 
lose hope. It is not so unusual for a sensitive, 
highly strung, shy girl to suddenly see the 
light, to return to normality, and grow into a 
fine, strong, well controlled and cultivated 
woman. Let us hope that she will do so very 

Ail F.xtraordinary Case of Dad Breathing 

Q. — I come from a musical family and I 
sang all my life until I was forty. Then I took 
some lessons from a teacher in New York. To 
the surprise of everyone, in three months' time 
I was singing difficult arias. About five months 
later a famous teacher in Hollywood, with an 
excellent clinical ear heard me sing. He told 
me my voice was well placed but that I had 
no support. One month after that my breath 
disappeared, that is, I could not let it out 
gradually. I would breath and hold, but as 
soon as the tone started, my breath would all 
rush out at once. If I walk fast for about fif- 
teen minutes and become “winded” I can sing 
afterwards without effort. I seem to need ex- 
ercise to expand the chest and push up the 
ribs. Also if I vocalize for twenty minutes 
while holding up the chest I can sing. Also if 
it is raining I can sing without preparation. I 
am a mezzo soprano with a range from G be- 
low Middle-C to two octaves higher. 

—M. H. MacG. 

A. — Breathing is a natural function, a proc- 
ess designed to supply the lungs with enough 
air to support life and health and to perform 
all the necessary actions of our daily life in- 
cluding speech and song. You seemed to have 
no trouble with your breathing when you 
studied under the teacher from New York for 
you sang your arias so easily and well, that 
you surprised your friends. Also you were 
told that your voice was well placed. Appar- 
ently you must have misunderstood the criti- 
cism of your Hollywood acquaintance, for the 
act of breathing as you now practice it is un- 
natural, effortful, and complicated and all 
together bad. Return to the old simple, natural 
manner of breathing, as you. used to do it. 
Practice your voice carefully every day, exer- 
cise in the open air, watch your diet, so that 
you do not get too heavy in weight, and we 
believe that your voice will soon regain its 
beauty and ease of production. 

She Sings F Above HigH-C but 
Still Calls Herself a Mezzo 

q — I have a mezzo soprano voice with a 
range from B below Middle-C to F above high- 
C. It is strong and I sing contralto very well. 
I can reach high E-flat or F but I cannot sus- 
tain it. I have not the breathing power to sus- 
tain ihe notes. Why is this ? My tones are ab- 
solutely true, if I could only sustain the high 
notes. I am a church soloist.— H. E. W. 

A.— The most essential thing for you to do, 
immediately, is to get in touch with the most 
famous singing teacher you can find. Have 
him carefully examine your voice and deter- 
mine for you, whether you are contralto or 
soprano. It may be dangerous for you to sing 
all those high tones, especially as they seem 
to be so insecure and so full of effort. 

2— It is doubtful that bad breathing is the 
cause of the insecurity of your high tones. 
Rather it would seem to us that you are sing- 
ing beyond the natural range of your voice and 
your vocal cords rebel. If your tones are ab- 
solutely true as you say, you must have some- 
thing to start with, so you should be encour- 

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March, 1947 


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Zone State 

I am a □ Teacher □ Student 

The Technique of Arriving 

(Continued from Page 144) 

then, with the same distinct quality of 
tone double the speed of the exercise. 
Nothing will be accomplished unless this 
speeding-up hjis been accomplished in 
both forte and piano. 

The next conquest is again in the direc- 
tion of expression. Rise and fall are first 
cousins to loud and soft. They demand a 
great deal of attention. To be able to play 
a two octave scale upward, starting piano 
and gradually increasing the tone to 
forte, ending or beginning with forte and 
decreasing the tone to the last note 
played piano, is another achievement. 
Play that scale in three different speeds 
with the same and then with the in- 
verted dynamic scheme, and you will find 
yourself on the way to interesting results 
of interpretation. 

If all teachers were conscientious to 
the point of insisting upon correct read- 
ing of the text, both as to notes and as 
to dynamics and other indications of the 
composer, life would be easier for all of 
us, and the creators of the master works 
could rest in peace. No correct interpre- 
tation is possible without correct reading. 

I personally consider the lack of discipline 
in the approach to first study on the part 
of the average student a real drawback 
in the popularization of good music. In- 
difference is the foe of clarity of purpose 
and of performance. 

Yes, a very few pianists arrive at the 
top and stay there, and some, including 
prodigies, arrive and slip back into ob- 
livion; but many have the chance to 
arrive at happiness and joy, a good life, 
and a good living, by pursuing and then 
accepting the opportunities that come 
their way. 

Confucius many thousands of years 
ago said, “If there were more music in 
the world, there would be more politeness 
and less war.” The power of music is 

The Cello— Virtuosity 
or Musicianship 

(Continued from Page 129) 

review drills all through one’s career. In 
stressing my own predilection for scale 
study, I may say that when I enter a 
town an hour before I am to play a con- 
cert there, I spend that hour, not on any 
part of my program, but on a con- 
scientious period of scale practice. When 
my scales are in sound order, my finger- 
work will be, too. 

“It is a very much harder matter to 
deveiop musical thought in a student 
who has fleet fingers (and who may have 
spent far too many years in thinking of 

faLfu gerS alone!) - In su ch cases, I 
take them away from virtuoso pieces and 
give them Each, Beethoven, and other 

Ilso /XvVh inWardness of Perception. 
TT*’ 1 P“ ay these works of musical ut- 
e ance for them. Let them copy' Such 
copying will not kill individuality. While 

sthfoThif Udent -f U lacks mu ^ ical in- 
sight of his own, It will be an immense 

before iV 111 WatCh a Pattern unfold 
before him— and when he gets tn ti,„ 

point at which he does have musical 

thoughts to communicate, he will quite 
simply communicate them, if he doe 6 
not— then the fault will be, not that of 
copying a teacher, but of having nothin^ 
of his own to say! ° 

“And, of course, the student should 
hear as much good music, of all kinds as 
he possibly can. He should play chamber 
works. He should concentrate on the in- 
wardly perceptive expression of gr ea t 
artists, finding out, not how they sav 
things, but what they have to say. There 
are specific cures for technical weakness- 
there is no single remedy for lack of 
musicality. Simply, the person— the hu- 
man equation— of the student, mast be 
built up and rounded out to the point 
where he can think and make music. 

‘Cello Literature 

“Finally, there is yet another problem' 
for the young ’cellist, and that is the 
question of what he shall play. It troubles 
me greatly when I hear that the ’cello 
literature is ‘small,’ and therefore hack- 
neyed. Actually, in the last four years, 
more valuable ’cello works have been 
composed than in the preceding century 
and a half! I cite the Sonata and Con- 
certo of Samuel Barber; Concerto and 
Variations by Hindemith; two Concert! 
and two Sonatas by Martinu: Concerto by 
Prokofieff; Concerto by Mjaskowsky; 
Sonata by Shostakovich; Concerto and 
Fantasie by Villa-Lobos; Concerto and 
Sonata by Guarnieri — and many more. 
The works are there — but see what hap- 
pens to them! In preparing concert 
schedules, managers send out, each year, 
the lull repertoires of their artists to the 
local managers who select what is to be 
performed in their communities. When 
these vital and excellent new works are 
included among the works of standard 
repertoire, the local managers generally 
select the standard works — Schumann, 
Haydn, Dvorak, which, of course, are 
magnificent works, but which cannot be 
listened to all the time. Yet. by man- 
agerial selection, they are heard all the 
time — and the critics then write that the 
literature of the ’cello is too standardized 
and too limited! What happens is that 
an artist begs to be allowed to play new 
music, is not allowed to play new music, 
and is then censured for not playing 
new music! 

“In South America, a system exists 
which I offer for consideration. Every 
foreign artist who comes for a tour-visit 
is required by law to include in each of 
his programs at least one work by a liv- 
ing native composer. In such a way the 
composers get their chance to be heard, 
and the public is kept abreast of new 
musical developments, and put into the 
habit of hearing and judging of new 
works and new forms. I do not think that 
this is ‘musical nationalism’ of an un- 
pleasant or dangerous kind. Instead, I 
think it a very practical means of help- 
ing the entire cause of musical develop- 
ment. It might be worth trying here! 

“In the last analysis, the greatest serv- 
ice that can be rendered the ’cello stu- 
dent is to keep him aware of music. If 
he can develop himself to the point of 
making music, he will close the gap that 
still seems to exist between artistic per- 
formance and finger-work; he will be- 
come a musician rather than a tech- 
nician; he will bring new meaning to his 
own playing, and will thus help to make 
the ’cello more popular — a result which 
will help him as much as the ’cello. Only 
a series of truly musical performers, 
however, can accomplish this!” 




Organ and Choir Questions 


o From my youth I have been enthusiastic 
nhniit musical concerts, but being a child of a 
? lL home I have not had the advantages 
nor discipline of paternal love. I know the love 
and sacrifice of my mother. For twelve years I 
willingly and cheerfully served my church as 
listing organist and pianist, helping wherever 
and Whenever possible, only to find myself the 
Have or victim of our church organist and 
choir When electing officers for the year, our 
choir did not elect an assistant but added an- 
other organist. Do you advise working for a 
n A Degree to prepare for a better position? 
r feel that 1 have the ability to teach in a con- 
servatory. Please advise me how to save my 
son from being victimized in music circles. Do 
you advise me to prepare to teach public school 

V . « r l « Innnhov’v riinlniTM. f OT T)iflTlO. 

A. The disappointments such as you mention 
are of course discouraging, but our advice is, 
do not take it too seriously, and do not let it 
“get you down.” Apparently you have a good 
piano foundation, and certainly further study, 
either for the B. A. Degree, or preparation to 
teach music in the schools, is well worth while. 
In the meantime probably you can obtain a 
position as organist in another church, which 
will give you experience and opportunities for 
practice. If your son is musically inclined we 
should not hesitate at all to give him the best 
possible in the way of musical education. Our 
experience has been that for the most part 
musicians are a pretty good lot. and one un- 
fortunate experience should not “sour” your 
outlook on the profession in general. 

Q. Where may I secure information regard- 
ing the organ in the Convention Hall , Atlantic 
City, New Jersey? Also concerning other large 
organs, and theater organs. — C. G. S. 

in imitating pipe organ tones. 

Q. In a recent issue of The Etude there is 
a composition for organ, Hallelujah, by Handel. 
Kindly tell me the meaning of the following 
which are under the title: 

A# (10 ) 23-8888-A20 

B (11) 13-8888-321, and so forth 
I have noticed similar numbers in 'former's 
book of organ selections, and have often won- 
dered what they meant ? — K. C. 

A. The numbers in question refer to reg- 
istration indicated for the Hammond organ, 
which is quite different in set-up from the reg- 
ular pipe organ. The A# and B are the “pre- 
set” keys for the two manuals, and the num- 
bers are suggestions for the harmonic draw 
bars. As so many Hammond organs are in use, 
publishers of organ music now show suggested 
registrations for both the regular pipe organ 
and the Hammond instrument. 

Q. I am a church organist. About two years 
ago a lovely new chapel was built in our local- 
ity, in which was piaced a organ (elec- 

tric), with the thought of later adding pipes. 
This organ, as most electric cabinets, has a 
tendency to be gruff in the bass, when heavy 
or full organ is used. As this is a new ex- 
perience to me, having used pipe organs 
wherever 1 have played previously, I would 
appreciate a little help in the way of litera- 
ture for this particular organ. We have Swell 
and Great keyboards as well as foot pedals. 
When soft organ is played it is fairly satis- 
factory; others have expressed themselves 
the same way. It is my thought that we do not 
understand this particular organ and its me- 
chanics. Since our chapel is often open to an 
audience of 1,000 or 1,200 people, the full organ 
is needed very much. — O. B. 

A. Information of this sort is not. to the best 
of our knowledge, contained in any one book, 
but the specifications of many of these large 
organs have appeared from time to time in 
various issues of “The Diapason." Chicago. 
Illinois. The publishers will advise you from 
their index regarding the issues in which any 
particular organ has appeared, and may be 
able to supply copies. Or. “The Diapason” 
files in your local library will undoubtedly 
have information along this line. 

Q. Could you please tell me when the first 
electric blower was adapted to the organ. 
What are the largest, church, residential, and 
public pipe organs? — R. K. S. 

A. We have been unable to obtain specific 
information as to just when the electric blower 
was first used, but it is a development of the 
early part of the present century. We do not 
have precise information as to the “largest” 
organs, but among the larger church organs 
would be that of the Morman Tabernacle. Salt 
Lake City and St. George's Church, New York 
City. In residential organs one of the largest 
would be that in the residence of Pierre B. 
du Pont, near Wilmington, Del. Two of the 
large public organs would be the one in the 
Municipal Auditorium. Atlantic City, New Jer- 
sey. and the one in the John Wanamaker Store. 

Q. About what would be the cost of a new 
Teed organ with two manuals and pedal board? 
Do you think that such an organ would be 
less likely to get out of commission than an 
electronic organ? Do the better kinds of reed 
organs have tones similar to pipe organs? Can 
you give me the address of a firm in San Fran- 
cisco where I might see a two manual, pedal, 
reed organ? — G. T. 

A. Under present conditions it is impossible 
to estimate prices of organs, but we are send- 
ing you the name of a manufacturer who will 
be glad to give you particulars, and also the 
name of their representatives in your vicinity, 
where you can probably see an organ. We are 
aiso sending names of firms who might have 
used organs of this sort. A reed organ tone, 
by its very nature, is different from that of a 
pipe organ, but reed organ manufacturers have 
endeavored, to some extent fairly successfully. 

A. We know of no literature which would 
help in a case of this sort, unless the manu- 
facturers themselves have a pamphlet of in- 
structions. You refer to an “electric” organ, by 
which we presume you mean a reed organ 
operated by electric power. The writer once 
played, experimentally, on a somewhat sim- 
ilar organ, and is inclined to believe the qual- 
ity of tone you«nention is in the organ itself, 
and little can be done to change it. As you 
become accustomed to the playing of this in- 
strument it is probable that you will develop 
a certain “feel" which will enable you to pro- 
duce the best tones of which it is capable; but 
beyond this little can be done. 

Q. Enclosed is a list of stops of our one 
manual reed organ: Diapason 8’, Vox Jubi- 
lante 8‘, Trumpet 8', Flute 4’, Wald Flute 2’, 
Harp Aeolirte 2', Violina 2', Corono 16, Sub- 
Bass, Treble Coupler, Bass Coupler, Vox Hu- 
mana. Please give me combinations for con- 
gregational hymn singing. Also for melody in- 
left hand, and in right hand. When are the 2' 
stops used? Would also like a list of instru- 
mental numbers that could be used for a fifteen 
minute recital of wedding music. Suggested 
combinations for offertories and preludes would 
be appreciated— H. F. H. 

A. For moderate volume in congregational 
inging use all the stops except Harp Aeoline 
nd Violina and Corono; for fullest volume 
dd Corono and couplers; for contrasting soft 
fleets omit trumpet. Your organ seems to lack 
aft 8' stops, and it would be difficult therefore 
a use solo stops in either right or left hand, 
ince you would have no soft background. The 
[arp Aeoline and Violina could be used as 
ccompaniment, with either of the 8 stops as 
Dio but you would have to play an octave 
jwer, probably, to get the right effects. These 
’ stops add a little brilliance to the 8 and 4 
tops but by themselves could be used to pro- 
uce ethereal effects in conjunction with the 
r ox Humana. So many single numbers for reed 
rgan are out of print, that it would be unwise 
3 list individual compositions for wedding 
urposes. In all collections of reed organ mu- 
ic however, you will find many soft numbers 
/h’ich woald be suitable for this purpose. Any- 
ling melodious, and not too loud would be 
uitable: for instance such as Rubinsteins 

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includes a wide variety of selections especially suited for Church, 
School Festival Events, Clinics and regular programs. BMI will send 
FREE reference copies of any of these choruses at your request. 


Cat. No. 

103 Hail Gladdening Light . KASTALSKY Roy 

104 *0 God Beneath Thy Guiding 

Hand (20c) TALLISLoftin 

105 Cantate Domino 

(Sing Unto the Lord). . . . HASSLER-Terry 

106 In the Valley Below (20c). . . .Manney 

107 Fearin' of the Judgment Day. .SWIFT 
U0**The Lilac Tree 

(Perspicacity) GARTLAN-Braine 

112 Let Freedom Ring SCHRAMM 

1 15 God Save the People . . GENET-ELLIOTT 

116 Praise Jehovah (20c) 

(Psalm 117, 118) MOZARTBinder 

117 O Saviour of the World. . . .GOSS-Ray 

118 *The American Song (20c) 


124 God, the All Powerful (20c) 


125 Sweet Jesus, Guide My Feet. .MEEKER 

126 Brave New World 

(A Pan-American Song) .... SCHRAMM 

127 Songs of Praise 


128 Sweet Spirit, Comfort Me! (12c) 


130 Lord, Now Lettest Thou Thy 

Servant (12c) KING 

131 Come Now, Neath Jesus' 

Cross (12c) Moller-Holst 

132 Bless the Lord, O My Soul 

(A Cappello) GESSLER 

136 I Will Lift Up Mine Eyes Unto 

the Hills (12c) ERWIN-Harlow 

137 Christe Eleison (12c) 


138 *Hymn of the Soviet Union (10c) 


141 Laudamus Te PERGOLESI-Falk 

143 Sing Unto the Lord a New 


145 Where Willows Bend (20c) . . .ELLIOTT 

149 Kde Su Kravy Moje 

(Slovak Folk-tune) (20c) . . Schimmerling 

150 Come My Way, My Truth, 

My Life (12c) WICKLINE 

152 Ode to America BLEDSOE 

155 All Mah Sins Been Taken Away 


156 Song of The Russian Plains 

(Meadowland) (20c) Strickling 

158 Afton Water (Old Scotch Song) 

(20c) Strickling 

160 The Immortal Father's Face . . .KLEIN 

161 All Ye Angels of God (Motet) . WALTON 

162 Come Holy Ghost (Anthem) (12c). Holst 

165 The Irishman Lilts (12c) COWELL 

167 Whispering Voice (L'Arlesienne 

Suite No. 1) (12c) BIZET-Strickling 

168 The Irish Girl (12c) Cowell 

169 My Mother (Christmas) ...STRICKLING 

170 Little Dove (S.S.A.T.B.) Robb 

171 Old Joe Clark Kleinsinger 

172 Psalm 113 (20c) SCHIMMERLING 

173 Oh Lord, Redeemer 


174 Psalm of the Harvest (20c). . .GESSLER 

175 Panis Angelicus (20c)FRANCK-Strickling 

176 Ave Verum (motet) WALTON 

178 O Let The Nations Be Glad 

(Psalm 67) (20c) Gessler 

179 Christmas Legend Mirelle 

180 Long Years Ago (Xmas)(12c).Garabrant 

181 O Promise Me DeKoven-Cain 

184 To America Cowell 


Cat. No. 

113**The Lilac Tree (Perspicacity). GARTLAN 

120 Let Freedom Ring SCHRAMM 

121 The World Is Yours. ...'.. .SCHRAMM 

122 Brave New World 

(A Pan-American Song) SCHRAMM 

123 Mon Petit Mari 

(My Little Husband) HERNRIED 


144 Let Thy Shield From III 

Defend Us WEBER-Springer 

146 Silent Night, Holy Night (With 

Unison Choir) (10c) MOLLER-HOLST 

163 To A Withered Rose 



1 00 O Saviour of the World .... GOSS-Ray 

101 In the Boat GRIEG-COULTER-Loftin 

102 In the Valley Below (20c). . ..Manney 
109**The Lilac Tree (Perspicacity). .GARTLAN 

114 Sunset WALTON 

129 Let Freedom Ring SCHRAMM 

133 I Wait Alone Beside the Sea 


134 Music When Soft Voices Die 


1 35 Cradle Song EISLER-BLAKE 


142 Lacrimosa (12c) SCHUBERT-Falk 

147 A Christmas Song (12c) 


148 Twilight (12c) KING-BLAKE 

157 Two Czecho-Slovak Folk Songs 


159 Aften Water (Old Scotch Song) 

(20c) «... Strickling 

164 Oh, My Beloved 

(Caro Bell Idol) MOZART-Falk 

166 The Irishman Lilts (12c) COWELL 

177 April LUBIN 

182 O Promise Me DeKoven-Cain 

189 Jubilate Deo (SSAA) (12c) 

Sister M. Elaine 

190 Where Willows Bend (20c) .... Elliott 


108 The Mountain Girl (Boys' Chorus) 


1 1 1 The Lilac Tree (Perspicacity) . . GARTLAN 
119 Elegy (Satire) (25c) 

139 *Hymn of the Soviet Union 


151 Hallelu! (a patriotic novelty). WINKOPP 

153 Dark Wings in the Night 

(20c) WALTON 

154 Song of the Nile WALTON 

183 O Promise Me DeKoven-Cain 

Don't Let It Happen Again. PRICHARD 

More About Mazas 

( Continued, from Page 141) 

second page are complicated. It is just as 
well that the study appears at the end 
of the book! One of the commonest faults 
usually becomes evident in the first 
measure: The thirty-second note follow- 
ing the rest is nearly always played too 
long. As the figure occurs very many 
times, keen attention is required to keep 
the rhythm exact. 

From the foregoing notes it will be 
seen that these Studies furnish widely 
diversified material for the development 
of both right- and left-hand technique. 
The needs of the bow arm as a means of 
artistic expression are particularly well 
taken care of. It would seem to be im- 
possible for a pupil to study Mazas thor- 
oughly and emerge with an undeveloped 
bow arm, yet very many succeed tri- 
umphantly in doing so! Can it be that 
all of them are careless? Or is it, per- 
haps, that the necessity for a good bow- 
ing technique has never been brought 
clearly home to them? 

Vials and Hautboys 

( Continued from Page 139) 

Accordingly, to make that peculiar nasal 
tone strong and distinctive, the player 
frequently introduced a brass pallet in 
the stem of the reed, against which he 
blew with all his might. Straining in this 
way often caused hemorrhages of the 
throat, to prevent which a collar of leath- 
er was worn. 

Often, the effects of this style of play- 
ing were so fell as to cause insanity. This 
has been passed down through the ages 
and the laiety of every epoch has believed 
that all oboists are insane. Personally, I 
think the oboist of a modern orchestra, 
engaged upon a modern score, is apt to 
be the sanest soul of the entire ensemble. 

So much for the two patriarchs of the 
orchestra. Subsequently, we shall scan 
the rest of the choir, from tuba and bas- 
soon to tympani and celeste. It is re- 
markable that families of such disparate 
antecedents can agree so readily upon a 
point of lambent harmony! 

Four Serious Songs(op. 121).Brahms/Nordea 

185 As With Beasts 25c 

186 So I Returned 20c 

187 O Death 20c 

188 Though I Speak With The Tongues 

Of Men 25c 

♦Band and Orchestra parts available. **Orchestra parts available, 

15c each unless otherwise specified 

Your Dealer Can Supply These Too! 


580 Fifth Avenue 

New York 19. N. Y. 


The Violinist Who Thrilled 
Your Great-Grandmother 

( Continued from Page 140) 

America, Ole titillated the frontiersmen 
by working these sound effects into his 
improvisations. It wasn’t art, but the 
raw-boned folks of the hinterland were 
entranced by it. In these early days the 
people of the United States were rugged 
Because they carried a cash box for their 
concert receipts, Ole and his manager 
always traveled armed. On one dark 
mght, a would-be robber set upon ole 
with a bowie knife, intent upon killing 
him and making off with the cash Ole 
kicked the knife out of his hand and 

"" ” *»• «“>■- 

B ti h V ? lnng thug presented Ole 
Bull with the knife and began frequent- 
ing concert halls to hear Ole who com 
manded their dog-like devotion 

friendlTwhY ! CCaSi ? n ’ ° le Bu!1 b ecame 
friendly with a party of hard-drinking 


westerners on a Mississippi River steamer 
To his surprise, one burly fellow chal- 
lenged him to a fight. “I’ll light the 
strongest man in your party,” said Ole 
quietly. “I don’t want to fight, but y ou 
leave me no choice.” When the fellow 
was named and came forward, Ole with 
a single blow of his ham-like hand 
knocked the bruiser to the floor. The 
rest of the pack backed away. When the 
tough guy regained his senses, he swore 
undying friendship for “the strongest 
fiddle-player I’ve ever met!” and followed 
Ole from town to town, pummeling any- 
body who dared to criticize the violinist 
or his playing. 

When Ole gave his first concert in San 
Francisco, the toughs of that robust city 
came to jeer but remained to give him 
the biggest ovation of his career. Before 
he left San Francisco the citizens be- 
stowed on Ole a wreath of gold set with 
thirty-six pearls. In the center glittered 
the coat of arms of California and the 
initials “O.B.” set with fifty-six diamonds 
Ole had his advance agent exhibit the 
San Francisco gift in the show windows 
of jewelry stores in all cities where he 
was scheduled to play. 

Esteemed by Renowned 

The fiddler had a singular talent for 
getting colleagues to sing his praises. 
Liszt, Chopin, and Mendelssohn pro- 
claimed his talent to the world. 

Among his devotees were Mark Twain, 
William Dean Howells, and Thackeray! 
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow and Jo- 
aquin Miller wrote glowing verses about 
Ole’s personality and his music. Ibsen, it 
is said, borrowed him as the model for 
Peer Gynt. 

Thirty-one United States senators once 
wrote Ole a letter begging him to give a 
concert in Washington. John Ericsson, 
inventor of the “Monitor” of Civil War 
fame, designed a piano to meet Ole’s ex- 
acting requirements after the violinist 
had sunk $15,000 into other experimental 

Even late in life, Ole was ever ready 
for a good stunt. King Oscar of Sweden 
half- jokingly said: “Mr. Bull, you should 
play the Saeterbesog from the top of the 
Pyramid of Cheops.” The aging fiddler 
headed for Egypt, rounded up dragomans, 
and nimbly climbed to the top of Cheop’s 
tomb where he played his fiddle with 
insouciant abandon. Crowds of natives 
listened. Even now, such shenanigans 
would be worthy of a high-oriced Broad- 
way or Hollywood press agent. But these 
things occurred to Ole on the spur of the 

Endless Generosity 

Generous in his appreciation of other 
artists, Ole Bull discovered the great 
Adelina Patti when she was eight years 
old and went on tour with the prodigy. 

A real enfant terrible, she was a trial 
for the big fellow. Yet he consistently 
pushed her to the front. 

Ole had no meanness in him. He gave 
countless free concerts and never re- 
sisted the feeblest invitation to play at 
a dinner party or a ball. Once, merely 
because he was asked, Ole gave a per- 
formance at an institution for the deaf, 
dumb and blind. Later, he wondered why 
he had played when nobody could see or 
hear him. 

Despite his imposing appearance and 
endless vitality, there was a streak 
of hypochondria in him. He morbidly 
watched his health, dodged sunlight, and 

( Continued on Page 173) 


Violin SJijestions 


b ViS“nia'-A genuine Francesco 
E ’ , • vello is a valuable instrument, and 
Ruggien t attention. As you plan to be 

deS r'! Ynrk CKv in the near future. I would 
in N ew Yor £ u l take it to The Rudolph Wur- 
suggest that you street. (2) August 

if'Gemunder died in New York in 1928. I am 
* ffmUiar with the device you mention, as 
Semg hi* invention and I doubt that it is used 
by many violinists. 

A Maker Named Pietro Gormini 
F P , Illinois— I have not been able to get 
any information whatever regarding a maker 
^wvl Pietro Gormini. The experts I have 
Sb to are inclined to think it is a fictitious 
name inserted into a few violins with the idea 
of giving them a somewhat higher value. This 
"'J to be a common practice; nowadays, 
however, most makers and dealers are more 
ethical The value of a violin bearing this 
hSne would have to be determined by the in- 
dividual merits of the instrument, since it 
could have no standard market value. 

Appraising a Stradivari** 

Mrs J. W. M.. California.— It would be im- 
possible to give a written description of a gen- 
uine Stradivarius that would enable a layman 
to distinguish it from a fairly good copy. It 
takes years of experience to be able to see the 
subtle differences in workmanship, quality of 
varnish, and so on. which to the expert eye 
proclaim the work of the master. Hundreds of 
books have been written about Stradivarius 
and the other great and near-great makers, 
but no one yet has become a judge of violins 
by reading the books. One must handle the in- 
struments, and handle many of them. (2) If 
you wish to have your violin appraised. I 
would suggest that you take or send it to Mr. 
Faris Brown, 5625 Wilshire Blvd.. Los Angeles. 

Who ig Carlo Micelll? 

Dr. H. W. G.. Connecticut.— The name Carlo 
Micelll is, I understand, well known in the 
violin trade. It is a fictitious name inserted by 
a New York jobber in the violins he imported 
from Germany and Czechoslovakia. These 
violins were made in different grades; so, 
without seeing yours, it would be impossible 
to say how much it is worth. Instruments of 
this type do possess, occasionally, an unusual- 
ly good quality of tone. 

Regarding August Pilat 
C. W. H., Louisiana. — There seems to be no 
information available regarding a New York 
maker named August Pilat. There is a well- 
known maker named Paulus Pilat, but he in- 
forms me that he has no relative named Au- 
gust, and knows of no maker by that name. I 
am sorry not to be able to help you. 

Book on Violin Makers 
E. J. C., Alabama. — I think the book that 
would be most useful to you is “Known Vio- 
lin Makers,” by John H. Fairfield. It may be 
obtained from The Rudolph Wurlitzer Co., 120 
West 42nd Street, New York City. It contains 
a great deal of very interesting information. 

The Schweitzer Violins 
I. C. H., Oregon. — A genuine J. B. Schweitzer 
violin in good condition would be worth today 
somewhere between five and seven hundred 
dollars. But there are hundreds of instruments 
to be found bearing his label which are noth- 
ing more than cheap German factory products 
of very little value. If you can refer to The 
Etude for January 1946, you will find an arti- 
cle entitled “Fine Fiddles— Fakes!” In it is a 
reference to Schweitzer and the unscrupulous 
manner in which his name has been used. 

Adult Study; Violin Making 

Dr. N. D., Indiana. — I am very glad that my 
reply to your previous letter encouraged you 
so much and that you are now having so good 
a time with your violin study. Though why 
you should think you have lost your mental 
agility merely because you learn more slowly 
now than when you were a child, I don’t 

know. You may learn more slowly, but I am 
certain you learn more thoroughly. Don’t be 
pessimistic. Two things are very necessary to 
successful violin study, optimism — and pa- 
tience. Regarding the vibrato, see if you can j 
get hold of The Etude for July 1944. In that I 
issue I had an article on the subject which I 
am sure would be helpful to you. (2) There is 
no “deep, dark trade secret” about the ability i 
to distinguish one maker from another. It is 
merely a question of experience, of handling 
and observing the work of many makers. It 
cannot be learned from books. I know of no 
better book in its field than “Violin Making as 
it Was and Is” by Heron-Alien. You were 
lucky to get a copy, for it has been out of 
print for a number of years. Incidentally, my 
name is “Berkley,” not “Brinkley”! 

Value of Friedrich Glass Violins 
B. A. T.. South Dakota. — Your^sviolin was 
made by Friedrich August Glass, who worked 
in Klingenthal, Germany, between 1840 and 
1855. The label means only that he endeavored 
to copy a violin made by Stradivarius in 1636. 
Which is very interesting, because Stradivarius 
was not bom until about 1644! The violins of 
F. A. Glass are worth from fifty dollars to one 
hundred and fifty dollars at most. 

A Genuine Stradivarius? 

G. A. S., British Columbia. — A written de- 
scription of a violin, particularly one written 
by a layman, offers no evidence at all on 
which to base an opinion regarding the origin 
or value of the instrument. The description 
you send me of your violin could apply to 
thousands of others, instruments ranging in 
value from twenty dollars to $20,000. If you 
wish to find out who made your violin and 
what it is worth, you must take or send it to 
a reputable dealer for appraisal. I think I 
should warn you that the probability of it be- 
ing a genuine Stradivarius is very remote 

A Different Stradivarius 

E. D., New York. — I have never heard of a 
maker named Francois Stradivarius. The great 
Antonio had a son named Francesco, but he 
would scarcely have put the French form of 
his name on his labels. Moreover, only two 
violins are known definitely to be the work 
of Francesco Stradivarius. Without examining 
it personally, no one could say who made your 
violin or how much it is worth. 

Another Fictitious Label 

L. F. C.. Louisiana. — You are quite right: 
the inscription you quote — Antonius Stradi- 
varius Cremonensis faciebat anno 1716 — does 
have reference to a famous violin maker. In 
fact, it is the wording used on the labels of 
the greatest maker of them all. But don t get 
excited about this — the same inscription is to 
be found inside many thousands of violins 
with which Stradivarius had nothing at all to 
do. Some of these violins are quite good in- 
struments, but the vast majority of them are 
very inferior factory products. 

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or 'boning' for exams . . . 

At the ball game or in class I LIKE BOB JONES COLLEGE 

"I am an ex-G. I. from New York I , , 

roommate is from Toronto the felln 9 wi h a co-ed from Oregon ... my 
Springfield, Birmingham, Detroit, Columbus,' 'eveT MeTco'cTty 'and Shanghai P '° CeS ~ 


Christian young people, if you like culture and n ' | V ° U Want f ° associQte with fine 
i.Vhen i, comes , ough L 3 „Z"s and hard ^ — * >» W 

September 1, Bob Jones College Becomes Bob Jones University 

same human scene. 

“In this sense, then, it becomes increas 
ingly difficult to say just where ' eoo h 
music’ leaves off and jazz begins j az2 ■ 
good music— when it sets itself, as earn 
estly as any other form, to explore and to 
express the feelings and the conditions 
of its time. There is good and worthless 
jazz just as there is good and bad music 
in the purely classical or romantic styles 
But for good jazz, the hit-or-miss davs 
of making a noise and being ‘different’ 
are gone. Expressive jazz requires as 
much scholarship, as much musicianship 
as any other kind of music. In addition 
it requires a peculiar awareness of form 
and of the human thoughts and feelings 
those forms express. The young musician 
will do well to reflect on the needs of 
jazz before he gets himself a drum and 
starts out on a career. If his 'rights’ are 
in good order, he’ll have luck!” 

Selling “Music” to the 
General Public 

( Continued from Page 133) 

undistinguished civic symphony group re- 
fuse the request of a photographer for a 
similar pose on the ground that it was 
not dignified— until he heard that his 
distinguished colleague had complied. 

If your symphony or musical group 
rehearses in its shirt sleeves, don’t de- 
mand that each man put on his coat and 
tie for rehearsal pictures. Leonard Bern- 
stein posed for photographs of the New 
York Symphony rehearsing to inaugurate 
its first season under his direction and 
his shirt was open at the throat. News- 
papers call this type of informality and 
authenticity the human interest touch. 
The public enjoys seeing how you work 
to achieve your results. 

At the same time, do not lend yourself 
to ridiculous gag pictures that might be 
suggested. I know one reputable musician 
who still regrets the lapse in judgment 
that led him to thrust his hand clutching 
music into his tuba to portray the absent- 
minded musician misplacing music. The 
picture was funny, yes, but it served no 
earthly point except to make him, and 
indirectly his profession, the butt of 
comedy by a Marx brother situation. 

Public Support of Music 

the first unit of the modern university plant 
now under construction in Greenville, S. C., is firfished 
as expected. Bob Jones University will begin its fall 
term at the new location. 

in tl ° ° neS g6 ’ StUdenfS receive '"‘Auction 
in voice, piano, speech, pipe organ, violjn 3n<J 

without additional cost above regular academic tui- 

For detailed information write: 


Interpretations in Jazz 

(.Continued from Page 134 ) 

of us. But what has this to do with the 
development of jazz? 

Simply this: that it requires a great 
deal more than off-beat rhythms and 
loud hoots to make jazz. It requires, basi- 

cally, two separate kinds of awareness. 
First, the thorough musical awareness 
that twenty-five years of steady develop- 
ment have brought to jazz. And, in second 
place, an awareness of the contemporary 
* c ™ e ™ lth a)I its shadings of feeling. 
When the young jazz musician comes out 
of the Conservatory, he still needs to 
learn much that cannot be taught by 
books and masters. He needs to learn 
what people are thinking and feeling; he 
needs to adjust to the contemporariness 

Sate T eS and the peopIe he 

wishes to express, and for whom he 
wishes to interpret life. And human needs 

h uf S CEn change overnight' Hence 
no doubt, the many kinds of jazz free ’ 
doms we find. It’s like moving a pe/Sn 

room urT* WUh a red Iight - into aether 
room lit by amber light, it’s the same per- 
son, but he looks different. And the manv 
jazz forms we find, each with its distil/ 
guishing harmonic or sfviuuT Y . 
represent varying moods, or colors oTthe 

Not all artists and pupils can become 
celebiated, and not all symphonies, op- 
erettas, and operas will be excellent. But 
there is a great need for proving oppor- 
tunities in the United States and a great 
need to acquaint the public with music 
in all of its artistic forms. The interest 
generated by correct utilization of the 
press will g0 a long way toward providing 
artists with an opportunity to be heard 
widely and frequently. With public sup- 
poit and sympathy, there is no reason 
w y small towns should not have patron- 
ized opera and symphony seasons, just as 
popular as those in Europe’s small towns. 

ut to enlist that public support and 
sympathy for any musical endeavor in 
a rge or small cities, one must reach the 
public by more than a curt formal an- 
nouncement or an advertisement buried 
among other advertisements. Selling mu- 
sic to the public is more than an addi- 
tional task in presenting a program. It is 
at once a challenge and a duty and a 
e remunerative in terms of prestige, 
patronage, and achievement. 





Apprenti Sorcier — Dukas 


Dance of the Russian Sailors — Gliere ’50 

Dance Macabre — Saint-Saens | qo 

El Viejo Castillo Moro — Chavarri [50 

Espona — Chabrier | qq 

Evening in Seville — Niemann '75 

Jeux D'Eau — Ravel 

Jota — Larregla 

Les Demons s'Amusent — Rebikov 40 



(from "Love of Three Oranqes") — 


Notturno — Respighi 50 

Polka (from "L'Age d'Or ") — Shostakovich 50 

Prelude a I'apres Midi d'une Faune — Debussy 1.00 

Prince Igor (Polovetsian Dances ') — Borodine 1.00 

Rhapsody (G minor, Op. 1 1, No. I) — Dohnanyi . . . . 1.00 
Rhapsody (F# minor, Op. I I, No. 2) — Dohnanyi. . . . .60 

Roumanian Rhapsody — fries co 1.25 

Serenata Andaluza — de Falla 50 

Valse Triste — Sibelius 40 

Waltz (from "Sleeping Beauty ") — Tchaikovsky 50 

Write for complete list. 

EDWARD B. MARKS MUSIC CORPORATION • RCA Building • Radio City • New York 

The Violinist Who Thrilled 
Your Great-Grandmother 

( Continued from Page 170) 

avoided moonbeams which he considered 
to be the cause of yellow fever. Ole also 
had a feeling for auguries and omens. 
Going down the Ohio River one night, 
his boat collided with another vessel and 
sank. Ole managed to swim to shore, his 
violin case clutched under his arm. *'I 
had a premonition that something like 
this would happen, so I slept fully dressed 
in preparation for it,” he solemnly told 
his friends. 

His robust sense of humor often 
plunged him into trouble. In his native 
Bergen, he refused to send the local po- 
lice force its usual bloc of free concert 
tickets. When the cops growled. Ole 
grudgingly sent the passes, but he placed 
a green lantern over the seats with this 
placard: “These free seats reserved for 
our faithful police!” Everybody laughed. 
Ole was arrested. During his trial, the 
judge became fearful when Ole’s fans 
demonstrated outside the courtroom and 
he ordered the fiddler released. 

Visions of A New Norway 

Despite the huge sums he earned — 
'more than a million dollars — Ole was 
perpetually in debt. One of his greatest 
follies was the purchase of 10,000 acres 
of scrubby Pennsylvania land which he 
grandly dubbed “Oleana." “This shall be- 
come the new Norway in America!” Ole 
boomed to newspapermen. “I shall bring 
thousands of poor Norwegian immigrants 
to Oleana and give them land, homes, 
and employment. My colony shall be a 
shining example of brotherhood and 

To make good this promise, Ole scraped 
feverishly at his fiddle and paid the 
mounting bills of his new Utopia. Then 
came the big day when he journeyed to 
the New York docks to greet one hun- 
dred grateful if puzzled steerage pas- 
sengers from Norway. 

Ole bought a gross of costly high fur 
hats — the foppish kind worn by statesmen 
and dandies. “These hats shall look won- 
derful upon the heads of my settlers,” he 
assured the astounded hatter. Long years 
after, the indestructible fur hats turned 
U P on the heads of Pennsylvania farmers 
who had inherited them from their fa- 
thers and grandfathers. Oleana died in 
a welter of debts and name-calling. Ole’s 
title to the land was imperfect. But Ole’s 

despair was short-lived; his spirit was 
too resilient to be throttled. 

Like many showmen of today, Ole was 
an easy mark for a confidence man or 
for those with a hard luck story. There 
was a day, for example, when a glib 
rascal sold the fiddler a rock in the 
middle of the Taunton River in Massa- 
chusetts for fifty dollars. “This rock is 
the original landing place of the Vikings,” 
said the con man reverentially. “You’ll be 
proud to own such a relic.” 

When he was sixty, after his first wife 
died, Ole married a twenty-year-old girl 
of Madison, Wisconsin. The nuptials in 
Madison were distinguished by a display 
of the presents Ole had collected from 
his adoring ones throughout the years. 
The newspapers ran many stories about 
the gold crown from the citizens of San 
Francisco, a ring bestowed by the queen 
of Bavaria, a pin with one hundred and 
forty diamonds from the queen of Spain, 
a gold snuff box bestowed by the king 
of Denmark, and a silver vase from the 
YMCA of New York. Despite frequent 
tangles with his in-laws, Ole was happy 
in this May-December marriage, which 
lasted until his death. 

When Ole Bull died in Norway August 
17, 1880, after fifty years of fiddling, it 
was as if a giant hand had stilled all 
human activity in his homeland. Every- 
body stopped work and stood transfixed 
by personal grief. Again women fought 
each other— this time, to witness his fu- 
neral procession. Fourteen black-swathed 
steamers formed Ole’s funeral cortege, 
sailing down the Bay of Bergen. Guns 
boomed in tribute to him. 

A Rich Harvest of Records 

(i Continued from Page 130) 

1 Giovanni,” and a concert aria— 
're ti lascio, a figlia. 
lew recording of Brahms’ Liebeslied- 
/alzer enlisting the services of the 
-Victor Chorale, with Pierre Lubo- 
tz and Genia Nemenoff (duo-pian- 
under the direction of the talented 
rt Shaw Victor set 1076, is the best 
irmance ' of this delightful Viennese 
I have ever heard. The recording 
ice is excellently contrived, and the 

tor’s first releases of its “Heritage Series” 
— reissues of famous singers of bygone 
days. These included discs by Tetrazzini, 
Mario Ancona, Marcel Journet, Enrico 
Caruso, and Frances Alda. Ancona, a 



piece for piece, or each; quality matched, 
Burpee’s Specialty Shoppe, Delton, Mich. 

great lyric baritone, is represented by 
arias from “Un Ballo in Maschera” and 
“Faust.” Alda is heard in the Salce, Salce 
and Ave Maria from “Otello.” In our 
estimation, these are the most valuable 
discs. Journet sings a meretricious air 
from “Les Huguenots” and another from 
Gounod’s “Philemon et Baucis.” Both 
vocally and stylistically, he is admirable. 
Tetrazzini is well represented in the 
Polonaise from “Mignon” but her singing 
of Voi che sapete from “Le Nozze di 
Figaro” is inartistic. Similarly, Caruso is 
ideally represented in Ah! fuyez douce 
image from “Manon,” and less happily 
represented in an aria from “La juive,” 
made when he was not in good health at 
the end of his career. These discs are 


Course by Dr. "Wm. Braid White. W rite Karl 
Bartenbach, 1001 Wells St., Lafayette, Ind. 

PRACTICING. Use Mayo's Muting device 
which enables you alone to hear your prac- 
ticing. Easily attached or detached with- 
out harming mechanism. State make of 
piano and send $5.00 for Silencer and full 
instructions. Guaranteed. Richard Mayo, 
Piano Technician, 1120 Latone St., Phila- 
delphia 47, Pa. 

PIANIST! Play popular hits, standards, 
with breaks composed by Phil Saltman, 
leading Boston teacher and radio pianist. 
Up-to-date, new ideas monthly. Sample 

WANTED: double-violin-case, solovox, 
old violin or cello. Any condition provided 
price is low. No dealers. Claude Wood, 
Johnstown, N. Y. 

pressed on plastic. harmony. Composition, Orchestration, 

Musical Theory. Private or Correspondence 
Instruction. Manuscripts revised and cor- 
rected. Music arranged. Frank S. Butler, 
32-46 107th St., Corona, N. Y. 

Lean on Yourself 

(Continued from Page 123) 

head of a large music publishing firm 
(Mr. Frank Connor of the Carl Fischer 
Company) , we discussed the need for 
sustaining musical interest from student 
days to mature life. Thousands of music 
students spend large sums of money, in- 
vest years of time and labor, only to per- 
mit their interest to fade and vanish later 
in life. This of course may be due to- per- 
sonal indifference, but nevertheless, it is 
a reflection upon our educational pro- 
cedure. Our teachers must make it their 
main purpose to provide their pupils with 
the enthusiasm, the initiative, the per- 
sonal independence, and the genuine love 
for music which induces every musically 
trained person to want to make music 
study a part of his daily life indefinitely. 

Edward Gibbon (1737-1794), author of 
the “History of the Decline and Fall of 
the Roman Empire,” called independence 
“the greatest of earthly blessings.” We in 
America, who make a fetish of independ- 
ence, should see to it that in our music 
study our students are trained from the 
start with the objective that if their mu- 
sic is to be a permanent life joy and in- 
spiration, they must be schooled in mu- 
sical independence. They must learn to 
lean on themselves and on no one else. 

PIANO TEACHERS: Increase earnings 
$1000.00 annually. Teach popular music. 
Send $1.00 for essential Carol Chord Scale 
Charts and free first lesson. Strictly 
Teacher's Course. Carol, Box 21E, Leflerts, 
Brooklyn 25, N. Y. 

FOR SALE: Hammond Novachord In excel- 
lent playing condition. Reasonable. Radio 
Station WSAZ, Huntington, W, Va. 

FOR SALE: Two old violins. Glorious tonal 

quality. Exquisite craftsmanship. One 
beautifully inlaid. Testimonials available. 
Box CS. 

MUSIC COMPOSED, orchestrated — songs 
arranged at small cost. Zygmund Rondo- 
manski, Holke Rd„ Independence, Mo. 

FOR SALE: Rich Wagner Letters to Math- 
ilda Wesendonck. In good condition. Price 
$7.50. Box 231, R. D. 8, Johnstown, Penna. 
Emma Raab. 

sional copies. Musicopy Service, Box 181, 
Cincinnati 1, Ohio. 

MARCH, 1947 




jWuStc for lenten 

anti Caster ^erbices 

Send for your free copies of our Easter and Lenten Music Catalogs 
and folders covering CANTATAS and ANTHEMS for Choirs of all 
grades of ability. 

Our examination privileges will help you to iind suitable music 
for your EASTER needs. 


Cantata— Mixed Voices 
Travail and Triumph 

By Lawrence Keatinq 
Price, 60*- 

Her© is a new Easter cantata by 
a composer who has pleased thou- 
sands with his music. The eleven 
selections include recitatives and 
arias for all solo voices, chorus 
numbers, and a selection for 
women’s voices. The average vol- 
unteer choircan easily meet the re- 
quirements. The words were writ- 
ten and selected by (\ W. Wag- 
goner, who has used Biblical text 
for all recitatives. The time of 
performance is about forty minutes. 

Anthems— Mixed Voices 
Alleluia Carol 

By John M. Rasley 

(Cat. No. 21598) 16 

Christ the Lord is 
Risen Today 

By Louise E. Stairs 
(Cat. No. 21599) 16 

Behold the Dawn 

By George W. Weldy, Jr. 
(Cat. No. 21600) 18 

Theodore Presser Co. 

1712 Chestnut St. PHILADELPHIA 1, PA. 



SONG (Mixed Vcs.) 

By Louise E. Stairs 
Price, 60c 

Within the vocal range of the 
average volunteer church choir. 
Time, 40 minutes. 


(Mixed Voices) 

By Alfred Wooler 
Price, 60c 

Interesting to the volunteer 
choir, and the solo assignments 
are very satisfying. 


(Mixed Voices) 

By Lawrence Keating 
Price, 60^ 

Melodious and sings easily. 


(Mixed Voices) 

By J. Christopher Marks 
Price, 75c 

Victory Divine’s record of suc- 
cessful renditions includes small 
choirs of volunteer singers all 
the way up to splendidly trained 
metropolitan choirs. Time, 1 


(Mixed Voices) 

By Chas. Gilbert Spross 
Price, 75c 

Wins favor with experienced, 
well rehearsed choirs having 
trained soloists. 


(Mixed Voices) 

By Wm. G. Hammond 
Price, 75c 

A stimulating and uplifting 
musical presentation of the 
Resurrection and Ascension. 



New Intriguing Melodies and Harmonies that Linger. 
Idea! for Studio and Concert. Used by progressive 
teachers and artists. 

1st to 2nd Grade 

Once Upon a Time .30 Russian Lullaby 35 

Joy Waltz 30 Good Fellows March .30 

The Wandering Minstrel .50 
3rd Grade 

Sailors Hornpipe. 

... .40 
... .40 



Medium Difficult 




,. .60 








, .50 

Thematic Circular upon Request 


Hotel Ansonia, Broadway at 73rd St., New York City 


Quick course to players of all instruments — make your 
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Duets, trios, quartettes and ensembles — special choruses 
— modulating to other keys — suspensions — anticipations 
— organ points — color effects — swingy backgrounds — 
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103 East 8&th St. (Park Ave.) New York City 

Through the Teen Years! 


by note 


Piano teachers everywhere have found it pays big 
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It brings you clever arrangements for playing extra 
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Send for Free Booklet No. 11 and low prices. 

TEACHERS — Use new loose-leaf system. Wrifel 
SLONE SCHOOL, 2001 Forbes Sf., Pittsburgh 19, Pa. 



Flutes of Distinction 


Catalog on request 

108 Massachusetts Avenue, Boston 15, Mass. 

The World of Music 

“Music News from Everywhere” 

held at Harvard Uni- 
versity, May 1, 2, and 
3, in which a number of 
leading critics and fig- 
ures in the music world 
will participate. Archi- 
bald T. Davison, pro- 
fessor of music at Har- 
vard, will preside, and 
Roger Sessions, professor of music at the 
University of California, will speak. Virgil 
Thomson will discuss “The Art of Judg- 
ing Music.” Olin Downes will be chairman 
of the meeting on the third day. New 
compositions will be performed by Bohu- 
slav Martinu, Walter Piston, Arnold 
Schoenberg, Aaron Copland, Paul Hinde- 
mith, P. Francesco Malipiero, Ca'rlos 
Chavez, and William Schuman. Attend- 
ance at the symposium will be by invi- 

BURRILL PHILLIPS of the Eastman 
School of Music, and Quincy Porter of 
the Yale School of Music, have been se- 
lected by the American-Soviet Music So- 
ciety to compose chamber music works 
based on Soviet folk themes received by 
the society. Announcement is made also 
that the five American folk tunes taken 
to the Union of Soviet Composers by 
Norman Corwin and Ilya Ehrenburg will 
be used in compositions by Alexander 
Mossolov and Lev Knipper. 

SET SVANHOLM, the Swedish tenor who 
has proved to be a veritable find by the 
Metropolitan Opera Association, will re- 
main with the company for the balance 
of the season. He had been scheduled to 
return to Sweden in February, but having 
proved to be such a success in the Wag- 
nerian roles, arrangements have been 
made with the Royal Opera in Stockholm 
whereby he will be able to remain to fin- 
ish out the season. 

ANCES in Poland of 
works by three Ameri- 
can composers took place 
on January 3 in Cra- 
cow, when Franco Au- 
tori, permanent conduc- 
tor of the Chautauqua 
Symphony Orchestra, di- 
rected the Cracow Phil- 
harmonic Orchestra in 
compositions by Norman Dello Joio, Sam- 
uel Barber, and Aaron Copland. Mr. Dello 
Joio was soloist in his own “Ricercari for 
Piano” and was obliged to repeat the 
third movement, so great was the en- 
thusiasm. Copland’s “Rodeo Ballet Suite” 
and Barber’s Adagio for Orchestra were 
equally impressive. 

awarded a one thousand dollar commis- 
sion from the Alice M. Ditson Fund of 
Columbia University to write a symphony 
The work will be Mr. Riegger’s first sym- 




phony. He has composed much for small- 
er ensembles and was the first American- 
born composer to win the Elizabeth 
Sprague Coolidge prize for chamber 

JACQLES DEMENASCE’S piano concerto, 
written in 1939 on commission from the 
Philharmonic Orchestra of Rotterdam, 
had its first hearing in the United 
States on January 6, when it was played 
by the National Orchestra Association, 
with Jacques Abram as soloist and Leon 
Barzin conducting. 

Foundation has ruled that all applicants 
for the auditions in March will be re- 
quired to have a piece by an American 
composer ready for performance. This 
will be the twenty-third amiual audition 
of the foundation. 

DOUGLAS MOORE’S Symphony No. 2, 
which was played for the first time last 
May by the Paris Broadcasting Orchestra 
under Robert Lawrence, received its 
American premiere on January 16 by the 
Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra, 
conducted by Alfred Wallenstein. 

in Boston, scored another success in its 
young career when it presented a double 
bill on January 10 and 11 consisting of 
Puccini’s “The Cloak” and Giun-Carlo 
Menotti’s “The Old Maid and the Thief,” 
the latter receiving its first performance 
in Boston. Detailed and intelligent act- 
ing are noteworthy characteristics of this 
company, directed and trained by Boris 
Goldovsky, who conducted the opening 
night. Felix Wolfes, the associate con- 
ductor, directed the second performance. 
Principal roles were sung by Evelyn 
Mekelatos, Phyllis Curtin, Robert Gay, 
Norman Foster, Paul Frank, Margaret 
Goldovsky, and Eunice Alberts. 

TITO SCHIPA, noted tenor who has 
not been heard in the United States for 
a number of years, appeared as soloist 
with the Detroit Symphony Orchestra 
conducted by Karl Krueger, on January 
23 and 24; and with the Philadelphia La 
Scala Opera Company on February 5, in a 
performance of “Lucia di Lammermoor.” 

THE SIXTH and final regional com- 
petition held by the Rachmaninoff Fund 
in Cleveland, January 11 , failed to pro- 
duce a pianist who could survive the 
rigid tests set by the fund. Honorable 
mention was conferred on Eunice Podis 
of Cleveland. Only two pianists have been 
selected to compete in the national finals, 
to be held in New York City in April. 
They are Gary Graffman and Ruth 
Geiger, winner and runner-up, respec- 
tively, in the Philadelphia regional audi- 

PAUL HINDEMITH’S “Sinfonia Serena,” 
written on a thousand dollar commission 
of the Dallas Symphony Orchestra, Inc., 

tut: vttidP. 

. j its world premiere February 1 
receiv rJhas symphony Orchestra, con- 
W th ® D bv Intal Dorati, on the NBC 
<W cte “ oy 0rchestras ” broadcast. On 
..parade ^ played at the regular 

Subscription concert of the orchestra. 

Ler the direction of Fritz Remer, 
TRA ; Sd its twentieth anniversary in 
celebrated f wh ich was a 7,000- 

january, a feawre ^ ^ thlrty _ 

deluding Six in Mexico 
The orchestra traveled in a special 
Clty ' insisting of four sleeping cars, a 
recreation coach, a diner, and baggage 

CHESTRA, one of the newest ensembles 
m the orchestral field, gave its first 
Icert in Bridgeport on February 19. 
Daniel Saidenbe.rg conducted. 

MAURICE EISENBERG, ’cellist, was the 
oS wSen Sir Arnold Bax’s new ’cello 
concerto was played on February 26 in 
Zndon with the BBC Orchestra under 
^ Adrian Boult. In addition to playing 
a heavy concert schedule throughou 
Fneland Mr Eisenberg held a series of 
Master Classes in London, beginning late 
in January. 

CHAUNCEY D. bond. President of the 
National Piano Manufacturers Associa- 
tion, reports that 100.000 pianos were 
totto U,M«1 Slates In » > 
predicts that the number will rise to 
160,000 in 1947. 

HON THOMAS E. DEWEY, Governor of 
the State of New York, was fleeted to 
National Honorary Membership in Pm 
Mu Alpha Sinfonia Fraternity °f Amer- 
ica, at the National Convention held m 
December at Ann Arbor, Michigan. Mr. 
Dewey was National Historian o e 
organization from 1922 to 1924. 

THE MAGAZINE, Review of Recorded 
Music, will make annual awards for the 
finest recordings of the year. A board o 
judges comprised of outstanding music 
critics of the country will make the se- 

sisted in this work by Carlton Cooley, 
violist, and Fank Miller, ’cellist. Others 
participating in the program were Joseph 
Fuchs, violinist, and his sister, Lillian 
Fuchs, violist, Frank Sheridan, pianist, 
and Leonard Rose, ’cellist. 




tinguished Spanish cel- 
list, was honored in Lon- 
don on the occasion of 
his seventieth birthday 
on December 29, when 
an orchestra composed 
of the most noted Brit- 
ish ’cellists, under John 
Barbirolli, broadcast his 
Sardana, a work for 
massed ’cellos, which Casals originally 
wrote for the London Violoncello School 
in 1927. The French Government also 
recently honored Dr. Casals by conferring 
upon him the rank of Grand Offlcier de 
la Legion d’Honneur. 

THE MUSICIANS GUILD, a new group in 
New York City* presented their first pro- 
gram in January, in which several un- 
usual works were programmed. Perhaps 
the outstanding rifimber of the evening s 
music making was the Sextet for two 
violins, two violas, and two ’cellos by 
Bohuslav Martinu, contemporary Czech 
composer. The Kroll Quartet, consisting 
of William Kroll. Louis Graeler, Nathan 
Gordon, and Avon Twerdowsky, was as- 

hoir Jsnuisi 

GRACE MOORE, inter- 
nationally famed so- 
prano, star of opera, 
screen, and radio, was 
killed on January 26 in 
Copenhagen, Denmark, 
when an airplane crashed 
and burned just a few' 
minutes after taking off 
for Stockholm. Miss 
Moore had given a con- 
cert the night before in Copenhagen 
and was scheduled to sing in Stockholm 
on January 27. The famous singer was 
born in Jellico, Tennessee, December 5, 
1901. She made her debut with the Metro- 
politan Opera Company in 1928, in "La 
Boheme.” Her most important roles were 
Mimi, Tosca, Manon, and Louise. She 
began her career in musical comedy and 
sang in a number of show hits of the 
day, including the “Music Box Review.’ 
Her most famous film role was in “One 
Night of Love.” 

ALBERT C. CAMPBELL, an original 
member of the Peerless Quartet, famous 
In the early days of recording, died at 
Flushing, New York, on January 2a, at 
the age of seventy-four. He was one ot 
the first singers to make records when 
the phonograph was being developed by 
Thomas Edison. 

and arranger, and for the past three 
years president of the Mendelssohn Glee 
Club of New York, died Janu ^ y12 
New York City. His age was fifty-four. 

ARCHIBALD SESSIONS, former organist 
at' the University of Southern California 
who during his career had toured in 
concert with Madam Melba, died in Los 
Angeles December 8, 1946. 

may GARETTSON EVANS, founder and 
for thirty-five years s u P erintet ^ en ‘ ^ 

1930 She had built the conservatory en- 
rollment from three hundred students to 

a peak of 2,246. 

pitfyf F marks, composer, organist, 
EL GENE r • - director 

teacher, who at one tnne^w ^ ^ 
of a conservatory m 9 t the 

Augusta, Georgia, on Januaiy , 
age of eighty. 

. , U I IAN GORDON, prominent De- 
Sigma Alpha Bta Musical Sorority. 


EBsfi-T5!i , :afsss 

( Continued on Page 180) 



for Teaching Beginners 
Sight Reading 

Complete Set ot 32 Cards, Keyboard Finder and 

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SIGHT-PLAYING easily and quickly j* arn '= d .W, , j" ay tots, 
or beginners of any age, with these Speed Doll Cards 
Makes teaching easier and quicker for class or individual 

EASY TO USE-Speed Drills consist of 32 cards with 

complete and easy-to-follow instructions for Aeit use. On 
each card is a picture of the note on the staff ^hus. 
responds with the key on the piano k ^ b ° ard - 
the student learns through his eyes, rather than the written 
or spoken word, the location and position of each note. 

AN ADVANCED STEP-Speed Drills are an advanced 
* p fn aiding the student to quickly identify the note on 
the 1 staff with the key on the piano. These handy cards 
stress visual accuracy, recognition of the keyboard por- 
tions, producing rapid visual, mental and muscular 

THE LARGE NOTES make vivid mental pictures. This 
fanure" is important, but best of all children Speed 

Drills. They should be used at the first lesson, and 
pupil should have a set for daily home practice. 

SIGHT-PLAYING is becoming more and more of a re- 

be*trained to attein'it^Spe^d Drills ^willla^the foundation 
for proficient sight playing. 

GET YOURS TODAY — Speed Drills may be obtained 
from your local music dealer, or send direct to us, ^ Pub- 
lishers. Complete set of 32 cards with instructions, only 50c. 


Cards in Place 
Back of Keyboard 

Drill No. 1 
For stressing visual 

Drill No. 2 

For instant recognition 
of keyboard positions. 

Drill No. 3 
For stressing rapidity 
playing the keys 

Drill No. 4 
For stressing rapid vis- 
ual, mental and muscu- 
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Short Rote Solos 

0 Set of Seven 

fOR Ptflno 


KariMf omens 


119 West 40th Street 


The continuous success of these collec- 
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needs. Examine them today! 

Preludes for Young Pianists— Goodrich .75 

Practical educational material which is always gooU 

ATreasure Chest of Famous Melodies— 

Carter .75 

Twenty-six familiar airs, arranged for children or 
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Rondolettes— Bentley 

Twenty-four short, merry and wholly musical tone 
poems in all keys. — ^ 




\ ^ ■ . 






Music Boxes 

by Paul Fouquet 


Musician’s Picnic 

by Lillie M. Jordan 

°J the boys in the Music Club sug- 
gested having a picnic. “The weather is 
sempre warm these days,” he TaTd “no 
a capriccio, as in April. We can sit out 
of doors ad libitum and a piaccere." The 

0 simJ S p, espond f ed con anim «- and fortis- 
simo Preparations began subito, assbi 

eo th°J l CCelerand0 - Choosing a place to 

IlirUo b^ am ^ gitat ° and argued con 
starter) d V0Ce ' At last they 

started allegro con moto for the woods 
and pin stretto. The birds were singing 

dolce con grazia. The boys and girls were 

ZJ t S u lermnd0 mood and d anced a 
tarantella and a gigue; then becoming 
piu serioso they danced a minuet, mod- 
erato poco maestoso. Towards the finis 

ann th th day ‘ h ® y grew P° c ° a Poco tired 
and their high spirits began to morendo 
and perdendosi. They finally walked 
home adagio, meno mosso. But they en- 
joyed the day molto and voted for a 
zposfa of the picnic. Encore, encore, they 
all cried in unison. y 

.""5? the blanks in the following 
™ g , dtles Wlth names of animals or 
something an animal eats. The one filling 

minute m ° St blanlcs in a e iven number of 
minutes wins. 

1. Old Tray. 

2. Three blind - 

3- in the Straw. 

Animal Game 

by Betty Griffis 

4. While Shepherds Watched Their 

5- Baa, Baa, Black ■ 
6. Listen to the 

7. Mary Had a Little 

8. When the - 

9. Coming Through the 
10. The Old Gray — - 

Homeward Ply. 

Henry VIII and his Flutes 

M any people collect things: 
some collect stamps, others 

Indian glaSS ’ d ° 11S ’ buttons, 

Indian baskets— most anything will 

Some n b f iS 01 hobby collecting. 
Some collections can be made very 

cheaply, others require spending lots 
of money. Some people collect cer- 
tain things because they really like 
the things they collect' others do 
not care particularly for the things 
they collect, but they enjoy the col- 
lecting of them. 

(iSTiLtT 1 ?’ King of Engiand 

flu tel W 7 ’ lfc Seems liked t0 COllect 

H f 15 s aid to have possessed 
one hundred and forty-seven flutes. 
No doubt they were very valuable 
instruments, as kings usually have 

thesf^flr t b6St ° f everythin g- Some of 
these flutes may have been gifts for 

of mnn he P ™ bably spent large sums 
of mone^ Seventy of his flutes are 
said to have been recorders. Re- 
corders, you know, are old instru- 
Raah S ’ ln vogue in the time of 

a f h ’ A Ut WhlIe they 3X6 called 
flutes, they are not played just as 
ur present-day flutes are played. 
They are more the shape of a clari- 
net, and the player blows directly 

^ tUb6 > inStead Of 

What L ’ as in ° ther flutes - 
wnat do you collect for your 

hobby? Write and tell the Juniol 

Etude about it. And in this case, you 

lust teT ^ nt f e on a musical topic- 
ust tell about what you really enjoy 
m the way of hobby collecting 

U NCLE John and Bobby went to the 
attic and began searching among 
numerous trunks and boxes that 
were stored there. “I’m quite sure they 
are still here, Bobby,” Uncle John said. 
“Ah, here is one,” he exclaimed, as he 
seized an oblong box covered with dust. 

“Are you sure that’s a music box, Uncle 
John?” Bobby asked. “I never saw one 
like that. Do you think it still plays?” 

“We’ll soon find out, Bob,” Uncle John 
answered, as he worked a lever to wind up 
the spring. “Notice this long metal cylin- 
der with those hundreds of steel needles 
that seem to be sticking out of it? And 
see that metal comb? Its teeth graduate 
m size like the strings of a piano, long 
teeth for the low tones, short teeth for 
the high tones.” 

Very slowly the cylinder began to re- 
volve and a delicate musical sound tinkled 
through the air. “I know that tune, Uncle 
John. That’s the Waltz from ‘Faust.’ ” 
"You’re right. And do you see what is 
happening? The tiny needles of the cylin- 
der are plucking the teeth of the comb 
making the musical sounds. The needles 
are very accurately placed on the cylinder 
so they will pluck just the correct tones 
for the piece.” 

“That’s wonderful. Sort of like the holes 
m a pianola roll. There used to be a 
player-piano in the gym in school.” 

Uncle John was searching around the 
garret as the music box kept pouring out 
he tinkly tunes. Bobby knew them all 
the Toreadors Song from “Carmen,” The 
Coronation March from “The Prophet” 
and several others. P 1 

, Eeres the oth er one I was hunting 
for, said Uncle John carrying a square 

aTrnnk- Which he laic > on top of 

a trunk and opened. p U1 

Bobby ' you notice this one is 

uses £1 Plan - ThiS mUSlc 

uses nat metal discs, a different one 

Iike a P bono giaph°record 
“f and sba Pe. The little prongs un 

comb as toe P H UCk the t6eth of the metel 
mo as the disc revolves Listen » ti! 

_^oh^^aSed I B^)by! >OXeS V6Iy ° ld ’ ^ nc * e 

Enchanted Notes 

l>y Frances Gorman Risser 

^n ^tha? 

Each tlSVnlTT m '° n °-’ 

Is given back its song? ' & blrd 

"The one with the cylinder is the eie 

It was brought from Switzerland in?* - 
great grandfather. The Swiss clock T 
ers were the first to put the metal T - 
idea into use. Let’s see tint comb 
the latter part of. the eighteenth centmv 
Only a watch or clock maker could h? 
made those very early music box^Th!* 3 
were really forms of jeweh-y, often studs * 
with precious stones and made in S" 
sizes and shapes, such as snuff S 
watches, clocks, books, mugs tovs s u ’ 
and chairs. They were reallv'very tan^ '' 
“I should say so!” exclaimed Bob by . 

An Old Fashioned Music Box 

“Especially chairs." 

Yes indeed, the chairs were a riot! 
When you sat on them out came the 
tune! They were not as early s j 

?e e re° madeT’ ’’ th ° Ugh ’ The music boxes 
were made larger, as time went on so 

t ley couM p i ay longer and by the end 

of the nineteenth century they were 

Sd 'VT QUantities t0 ‘^PPlv the de- 
everv 'hnmp WaS , a mUSlc box in nearly 
nhn? h k’ as later on the! ' e was a 
phonogiaph and now a radio or two. With 

he metal disc It was possible to have a 

XuIm 617 ° f ? iCCes as the discs could 
And hill* •7 e bUy P hono S r aph records, 
anim^rf t ° r not ’ music b° xes Played 
e^T an part in s P read ing a knowl- 

wem ve r v°m P ^ USic ', even though they 
nZrJT mechanical and without anv 

smafi eh m e ? reSSi0n ’ 1 mysel1 - " hen a 
comL ’ b6Came lamiliar with many 
box^wf^ through these very music 
boxes we have been playing." 

B 'h h be t y0u . wish You had radios then,” 
rupting & m ° St whispered . without inter- 

akn T m ° f the tinkling music box 
Dieses in —. many comp osers to write 
r itation of them, such as the 
Liadoff ' and t be 

sph-eri h £ ’ by Po!dini - no doubt in- 

dolls wi/w l ^tle mechanical dancing 

boxes w th hlCh many of the old music 
ixixes were equipped.” 

dim nnni Pl£ 7 u he Dancin S -Doff, by Pol- 
it aE 6 , J ° hn- You ’ ve heard me play 
must ll,v Why d ° you kee P those swell 
no nnp es u P'here in the garret where 
«w an hear them?” 
ash-i B T obby ’ you make me feel almost 
them nnn really had forgotten all about- 
boxes lac/ 1 y ? U asked me about music 
are mm ^ nl f bt ’ You know, music boxes 
MnVmrn °" leSS bei ng revived now. get- 

Well dust th 16 faahion ’ y°n might i&y. 
stairs 1 th f, Se off and ta ke them down 
on the n they can exei 't their charms 
(How P m Sent mUsical generation.” 
boxes ^ v 3 u 7 dunior Binders have music 
Sattfiybe you can find one in your 



Junior Etude Contest 

The Junior Etude will award three at- 
Hve prizes each month for the neatest 
a hest stories or essays and for answers 
and °_w contest is open to all boys and 

t0 puzzles. Contest is open 

girls wider eighteen years of age. 

a fifteen to eighteen years of 
Jg. class ’ b, twelve to fifteen; Class C, 

Under twelve' years. 

Names of prize winners will appear on 
this page in a future issue of The Ktude. 
The thirty next best contributors will re- 
ceive honorable mention. 

put your name, age and class in which 

you enter on upper left corner of your 
paper, and put your address on upper 
right corner of your paper. 

Write on one side of paper only. Do 
not use typewriters and do not have any- 
one copy your work for you. 

Essay must contain not over one hun- 
dred and fifty words and must be re- 
ceived at the Junior Etude Office, 1712 
Chestnut Street, Philadelphia (1) , Pa., by 
the 22nd of March. Results of contest 
will appear in June. Subject for essay 
contest this month: “My Favorite Piano 

The Advantage of Starting 
Music When Young 

(Prize Winner in Glass B) 

A young child starting music does not 
lose interest; he finds it fascinating, ex- 
citing, and wonderful. Imagination fills 
his mind from the very beginning and he 
also develops a strong connection be- 
tween himself and his music. A strong 
tie binds them together. This new world 
is not strange, it Is like a song that never 
grows old. The road to success is open 
to the young. 

Shirley Davison (Age 12), 


Joan Zett wrote to the Junior 
Etude, asking for some information, 
but forgot to give any address. Now, 
Joan, don’t forget an important 
thing like that the next time; be- 
cause it was not possible to answer 
your letter! 

(Prize Winner in Clam C) 
Cherie Lee Medus (Age 11), Missouri. 

Send answers to letters in 
care of Junior Etude 




A professional music school in an attractive 
college town. (Member of the National 
Association of Schools of Music.) 

Thorough instruction for carefully selected 

students in all branches of music under artist teachers. 

Special training in hand and choir direction. 

Write for catalogue describing Oberlin’s conservatory 
courses and its superior equipment (200 practice 
rooms, 23 modern organs, etc.). Degrees: Bachelor of 
Music, Bachelor of School Music; Master of 
Music, Master of Music Education. 

Honorable Mention for L**aya: 

Anita Morley. Adrian Blecker. Carole Caw- 
thom. Billie Lester. Freddie Turner. Ethel 
Weder, Virginia Orscheln, Janice Miller. Muriel 
McKennv, XI Haft. Mary Belle Shelton. 

Nancy Burch. Doris Walter. Evelyn Hayes, 
Jean Wagner. 

Dear Junior Etude: 

In our Little Artists Club we have fourteen 
members, between the age of five and twelve. 
To become a member we must pass an exam- 
ination before our teacher: be able to play all 
major scales and write relative and harmonic 
minors: play all major and minor chords with 
syncopated pedal; play all major and minor 
arpeggios, legato and staccato; name and play 
I. IV and V chords of all major scales; play 
a second grade piece at sight; know a number 
of musical terms; be able to play syncopated 
and simultaneous pedal; tell the life of some 
composer from each period and name one of 
his works; be able to write down some notes 
as our teacher plays them; play in one class 
recital or two school programs; and give a 
studio recital with at least six memorized 

We hope other boys and girls will have as 
much fun in their music clubs as w r e do in 
ours. We are sending you our picture. 

From your friend, 

Diane Divelbess (Age 11), 

Phoenix, Arizona 

Linda Hutchison, Hermia O'Dell, GeorgeAnn 
Jensen. Mary Lou Chambers. Jocelyn Jensen, 
Eve Tomlinson. Patricia Arnold. Robert Wil- 
iams. Donna Smith. Hazel Green. Barbara Mc- 
L^irmis. Lauralee O’Dell, Marjorie Taylor. Diane 

Dear Junior Etude: 

I have just been reading The Etude and de- 
cided to write to you. I have been taking 
niusic lessons for seven years from my mother, 
J*ho is a music teacher. In the recital I was 
th* enou 6h to w * n one of the two medals 
mat were given. I practice one hour and a 
quarter every day and also sing in the Junior 
noir and Glee Club. I practice some on the 
Pipe organ, too. 

From your friend, 

Katie Lee Currin (Age 11). 

North Carolina 

Dear Junior Etude: 

It has been a long time since I wrote to you. 
I won a couple of prizes about four years 
ago. I no longer take piano lessons because 
we have no piano now, but my sister gave 
me and my brother a trumpet and cornet for 

Dwight and Roy Reneker 

Christmas. It was the best Christmas present 
we ever got. We now play in our High School 
Band and have played at some church pro- 
grams. We also play the drums, which we 
used to play in the school band. I hope to 
be a band leader some day. 

From your friend, 

Dwight Reneker (Age 14), 

[ A plav N the trombone, piano, and pump organ 
d am in our School band. At present I am 
acticing second trombone for a quartette. In 
mo l may possibly have an opportunity to 
/Mir Rnrnrv 

:ar Junior Etude: 

[ am a boy. twelve years old and I play 
e trombone and the piano. I have played 
>mbone solos in the band to which I be- 
lg I have entered some of the Junior Etude 
ntests and have received honorable mention, 
nen I get home from school I like to play 
ets with my mother, or just play alone. My 
imbone teacher is away now but when he 
mes back I will take some more lessons. I 
Toy music and like to hear the Symphony 
chestras on the radio. 

From your friend, 

Donald R. Hunsberger (Age 12), 

Answers to Game 

Frank H. Shaw, Director, Box 537, Oberlin, Ohio. 

Bachelor of Music Degree, Master of Music Degree, Artist Diploma 
BERYL RUBINSTEIN, Mus. D., Director 3411 Euclid Ave., Cleveland. O. 

Charter Member of the National Association of Schools of Music 



The University of Rochester 

Howard Hanson, Director 

Raymond Wilson, Assistant Director 
Undergraduate and Graduate Departments 

June 23 — August 1, 1947 


September 22, 1947 — June 12, 1948 

For further information address 

ARTHUR H. LARSON, Secretary-Registrar 
Eastman School of Music 
Rochester, New York 

March, 1947 


the time we were ready to turn over to 
the lithographers the cover subject for 
this March issue of The Etude Music 
Magazine the sad news came to us'of the 
passing of one of America's great con- 
temporary composers, Charles Wakefield 
Cadman. The original plans for the 
March cover were changed, and in mem- 
ory of Dr. Cadman and to do honor to 
him for the place he achieved in Amer- 
ican music we are presenting on the 
cover of this issue the unusual but very 
characteristic portrait of the late Dr. 
Cadman. This picture was taken in 1935 
at the console of the half million dollar 
“Spreckles” organ located on the grounds 
of the World’s Pair held in San Diego, 

Charles Wakefield Cadman was born 
in Johnstown, Pa., December 24, 1881. 
His middle name came from his mother’s 
maiden name, she having been Carrie 
Wakefield before her marriage to William 
Cadman, who was a metallurgist with the 
Carnegie Steel Co. There is no record 
that his parents were particularly mu- 
sical, although his great-grandfather, 
Samuel Wakefield D.D., L.L.D. was a 
builder of the first pipe organ west of 
the Alleghenies. 

Charles Wakefield Cadman never was 
robust in health, but he worked hard to 
achieve success as a composer. Among 
his larger works are the operas Shanewis 
and the Witch of Salem; and the orches- 
tral works Oriental Rhapsody; Dark 
Dancers of Mardi Gras; Awake, Awake; 
and Festal March in C. Besides a number 
of successful operettas, cantatas, and 
choral works he wrote many songs widely 
used by leading singers and standing in 
great favor with the American public. 
Best known of these are his At Dawn- 
ing; From the Land of the Sky Blue wa- 
ter; Lilacs; Candlelight; I Have a Secret; 
and The World’s Prayer. 

Dr. Cadman had felt particularly phy- 
sically distressed early in November, 1946, 
and eventually had to be rushed to the 
hospital as a result of a heart attack, 
dying on December 30, 1946, in Los An- 
geles a few days after entering the 

—When this issue of The Etude is dis- 
tributed the Music Teachers National 
Association will have had its annual 
meeting in St. Louis. A little later 
thousands will attend the sectional Mu- 
sic Educators Conferences which include 
the Southwestern in Tulsa, Okla., March 
12-15; the Northwest in Seattle, Wash., 
March 19-22; the California -Western in 
Salt Lake City, Utah, March 30-April 2; 

The North Central in Indianapolis, In- 
diana, April 9-12; the Southern in Bir- 
mingham, Ala., April 17-19; and the 
Eastern in Scranton, Pa,, April 24-27. 
Private music teachers will do well to 
look in on such Conferences. 

Not to be overlooked are the fruitful 
meetings of the New York State Catholic 
Educators Conference in New York City 
March 13-15, 

It is worthwhile for every music teacher 
to be affiliated with a music teachers as- 
sociation. Invaluable is the free exchange 
of ideas through membership in such 

There are thousands of teachers in 
these United States living in communi- 
ties where the population in a radius of 
many miles is not sufficient to support 
more than one or two music teachers. 

^Ijarch, / 94 7 


All of the books in this list are in 
preparation for publication. The 
low Advance Offer Cash Prices ap- 
ply only to orders placed NOW. 
Delivery (postpaid) will be made 
when the books are published. 
Paragraphs describing each pub- 
lication appear on these pages . 

The Adventures of Peter the Piano— An 
illustrated Story for Children 

Dorothea J. Byerly .50 
Chapel Echoes— An Album of Sacred and 
Meditative Music for Pianists Young and 

Old Peery .40 

The Child Tschaikowsky — Childhood Days of 
Famous Composers 

Lottie Ellsworth Coif and Ruth Bampton .20 
Ella Ketterer's Book of Piano Pieces— For 

Piano Solo 35 

Etudes for Every Pianist Maier .60 

Fantasy in F-Sharp Minor — For Two Pianos 

Four Hands Ralph Federer .50 

King Midas — Cantata for Two-Part — Treble 

V°' ces Thaxter-Strong .35 

s — A Piano Book for Young 

Beginners Ella Ketterer .25 

Mendelssohn's Organ Works Kraft .75 

More Themes from the Great Concertos— 

For Piano Henry Levine .40 

The Music Fun Book— A Work Book for 
Young Piano Beginners 

Virginia Montgomery .25 
Rhythmic Variety in Piano Music— For the 

Player of Moderate Attainments 40 

Selected Second Grade Studies for Piano .... 

David Lawton .25 

Ten Etudettes in Thirds and Sixths— For Piano 

Mana-Zucca .25 

Twenty-Four Short Studies — For Technic and 
Sight Reading for Piano... L. A. Wilmot .30 
Twenty Teachable Times— For Piano 

Opal Louise Hayes .25 
You Can Play the Piano, Part One. .Richter .35 
You Can Play the Piano, Part Two . . Richter ,35 

These are the teachers who find every 
issue of The Etude particularly helpful 
and who use all the conveniences offered 
by the Theodore Presser Co. in giving 
teachers the opportunity to examine mu- 
sic, maintain studio stocks, and to enjoy 
charge account privileges..Any established 
teacher, or anyone ready to enter the 
teaching profession, is invited to ask for 
full details. Simply address Theodore 
Presser Co., 1712 Chestnut Street, Phila- 
delphia 1, Pa. 

for the Player of Moderate Attainments — This 

symposium of third grade piano pieces is 
an innovation, and should stimulate the 
musical curiosity of those students who 
have a limited time for practice. The 
contents will include some of our most 
successful publications of the past and 
several recently published compositions. 

One copy may be ordered now at the 
special Advance of Publication Cash Price 
of 40 cents postpaid. 

to Study Them, Selected, Revised, and 
Edited by Guy Maier— E tude readers will 
remember the “Technic-of-the-Month” 
pages conducted by Dr. Maier which be- 
gan in January, 1941, and continued for 
several years. In response to numerous 
requests that these “lessons” be made 
available in permanent form, the 'author 
has assembled the best of them for this 
book, which is planned for the inter- 
mediate grade or early advanced student. 
The technical applications cover a wide 
range with emphasis on melodic, chord, 
staccato, and octave studies. 

Eighteen musical etudes comprise the 
useful contents, drawn from the writings 
of Stephen Heller, Carl Czerny, Franz 
Liszt, Frederic Chopin, Sigismund Le- 
bert, and Louis Stark. Each is complete 
with the original “Technic-of-the-Month” 
article which appeared in The Etude and 
which is written in the characteristic 
style that has made Dr. Maier’s work so 

No progressive teacher can afford to be 
without a reference copy of this impor- 
tant book, which may be ordered now in 
advance of publication at the low cash 
price of 60 cents, postpaid. 


Days of Famous Composers Series, by Lottie 
Ellsworth Coit and Ruth Bampton— This new 
addition to the popular Childhood Days 
senes will be greeted with high enthusi- 
asm by the many music teachers who 
have found the earlier books indispensa- 
ble With its illustrations, it will be espe- 
cially attractive to pupils between five 
and twelve. A selected list of recordings 
is included. The six simplified musical 
selections comprising the major part of 
fh! themes from Allegro of 

Stone SlXt H f Symphon y”: from Marche 
Slave, and from Piano Concerto No 1 • 

rroL! BarCar ° lle) : and> in duet f0 ™’ 

In advance of publication, a sin gie 
copy may be ordered at the special Cash 
Frice, 20 cents, postpaid. 

GEK ™ S : ,OT , Solo, Compiled and Ar- 
ranged by Henry Levine— The widespread 
tremendous popularity of Themes from 
the Great Piano Concertos and the in 
sistent demand for more books of the 
same excellence have prompted M r 
Levme to dip once more into the rich re 

ten r ih S ° f the concerto literature The 
ten themes and melodies which comprise 
this second volume have been chosen 
principally, but not exclusively from 
great works for the piano. New arrange™ 
ments and editing mark all the delight 
ful contents of this book gm 

Cath ~ SPe „ C i al Advance of Publication 
may* b^ordered^ow.' ° ne C °^ 

CHAPEL ECHOES — An Album of Sacred and 
Meditative Music for Pianists Young and Old 

Compiled and Arranged by Rob Roy p,.,. ’ 
—This compilation of great sacred music 
is for pianists of grade two-and-one-half 
attainment. The source of most of its 
contents is from the choral literature 0 f 
Bach, Bortniansky, Franck, Gaul, Maun- 
der, and Mendelssohn. Also included are 
many familiar compositions in easy ar- 
rangements, including Adam’s O Holy 
Night; Faure’s Palm Branches; the 17th 
century melody, A Joyous Easter song- 
and Kremser’s Prayer of Thanksgiving 
The player also will like the musicianly 
easy arrangements of Ode to Joy from 
Beethoven’s “Ninth Symphony” and the 
Adagio Cantabile from his "Sonata p a - 
thetique”; Triumphal March by Grieg- 
Theme from the “Symphony No. 5 hi, 
D” by Haydn; Humperdinck's Evening 
Prayer; Romanze from Mozart’s “Night 
Music”; Schubert’s Ave Maria; and “Fin- 
landia” Choral by Sibelius. 

A single copy may be ordered now at 
the special Advance of Publication Cash 
Price of 40 cents, postpaid. Copyright 
restrictions confine the sale of the book 
to the United States and its possessions. 

KING MIDAS, Cantata for Ttco-Parl Treble 
Voices , Lyrics by folia Thaxter, Music by 
May A. Siron*— For the school music fes- 
tival here is a charming cantata. 

. Children love the familiar story of 
King Midas, whose golden touch brought 
him despair. Designed especially for 
the upper elementary grades or the early 
junior high school years, this two-part 
cantata, requiring no solo voice, affords 
tuneful, singable music in easy range 
with a piano accompaniment not beyond 
the ability of the average pianist. 

An order may be placed now for a 
single copy at the special Advance of 
Publication Cash Price of 35 cents, post- 

nic and Sightreading for Piano, by L. A. 
Wilmot — A work in grades two and three- 
and-one-half, which will prove valu- 
able and interesting, and which will be 
especially welcomed by the pupil with 
small hands. Variety is achieved by util- 
izing major and minor modes, and keys 
up to four sharps and four flats. To be 
issued in the Music Mastery Series at 60 
cents, single copies now may be ordered 
by teachers at the special Advance of 
Publication Cash Price, 30 cents, post- 

An Illustrated Story for Children, by Doro- 
ihca J. Byerly — Here is a fanciful and de- 
lightfully entertaining story, told in such 
a way that it no doubt will reach beyond 
its intended juvenile audience, and ap- 
peal to grown-ups as well. It is designed 
for recreational reading only, and so con- 
tains no music for the young player to 
master before deriving full pleasure 
from the book. 

The Adventures op Peter the Piano 
relates a succession of exciting events in 
the life of Peter the Piano from the time 
of his lonely existence in a dusty ware- 
house until he becomes the prized pos- 
session and beloved companion of a sweet 
little girl. Sixty-nine attractive drawings 
in color serve to illustrate the story. 

Prior to publication, a single copy may 
be reserved at the special Advance of 
Publication Cash Price of 50 cents, post- 




cV IN F-SHARP minor, for Two 

^ four Hands, by Ralph Federer This 
Pianos, for concert performance, 

w ° r kis (ies is composer ’s Rhapsody in 

as was tne testing sections of the one 
p Minor- c e marked Ma estoso, Allegro 

® 0V T drito Andante con Moto, Allegro 

-Tan. ending WHh 3 SUlTlng 

G ^£ S< Mr. Federer’s Fantasy in F- 
J^ Minor is being prepared for the 
S Jit a single copy may be reserved at 
r/special Advance of Publication Cash 
price of 50 cents, postpaid. 

^°Ssed by Edwin Arthur Kraf.-ThlS 
Inortant new publication by a distin- 
Sri organist and scholar is carefully 
adapted to the modern organ with newly 
prepared fingerings, pedaling, and reg- 
istrations. The contents, of course, com- 
nrise the complete organ compositions 
of Mendelssohn, six Sonatas and three 
Preludes and Fugues. Among them one 
finds some of the noblest organ music. 

A single copy of this new book may be 
reserved now at the special Advance of 
Publication Cash Price of 75 cents, post- 

Tiro Parts for the Older Beginner, by Ada 

Richter— Mrs. Richter here presupposes 
the pupil’s knowledge of musical funda- 
mentals. Thus, musical experience begins 
at once. 

The book includes some original com- 
positions, and novel arrangements of 
popular folk songs from Europe and the 
Americas. There are also adaptations 
from Brahms, Johann Strauss and others. 

While this book is in preparation, or- 
ders for a single copy of either or both 
parts, may be sent in at the special Ad- 
vance of Publication Cash Price of 35 
cents each, postpaid. 

by Opal Louiec llayc* — The studies pre- 
sented here are charming, simple num- 
bers to augment the regular instruction 
book of the first grade pianist. Only easy 
major keys are employed in these solos, 
which range in difficulty from very easy 
melodies divided between the hands to 
engaging pieces of grade one-and-one- 
half. The delightful words which accom- 
pany several studies will help the pupil 
to master the rhythm. The book is de- 
signed in the practical oblong shape with 
lively titles and delightful illustrations. 

One copy to a customer may be or- 
dered now at the special Advance of 
Publication Cash Price, 25 cents, postpaid. 

Piano. Compiled by David Lawlon — This 
useful new compilation provides addi- 
tional early grade supplementary ma- 
terial by composers outstanding in their 
technical writing for children: Edmund 
Parlow, Cornelius Gurlitt, Mathilde Bil- 
bro, Louis Streabbog, and Louis Kohler. 
Legato and staccato passages, repeated 
notes, cross hand work, scale passages in 
both hands, arpeggios divided between 
the hands, and syncopation are repre- 
sented in attractively titled numbers such 
as The Tambourine Dance; Tiny Rubber 
Ball; Fairy Bells; The Witch Rides Her 
Broomstick; The Magic Stream; and 
Pickaninny, all carefully edited as to 
Phrasing and fingering. 

In the United States and its possessions 
a copy may be ordered now at the special 
Advance of Publication Cash Price of 25 
cents, postpaid. 

march, 1947 

PIECES, for Piano Solo — This book will 
be made up of pieces in grades two-and- 
one-half and three, and special features 
will be diversity of rhythmic pattern and 
a variety of style. It is designed to en- 
gage the interest of every student, and 
its wide acceptance in the teaching field 
is assured. As in all her work. Miss Ket- 
terer here again reflects her keen sense 
of values in a combination of educational 
features with musical appeal. 

A single copy of Ella Ketterer’s Book 
of Piano Pieces may be reserved now, for 
delivery when ready, at the special Ad- 
vance of Publication Cash Price of 35 
cents, postpaid. 

for Piano, by Manu-Zucca — The Music Mas- 
tery Series before very long will include 
this practical collection of exercises for 
students in the third and fourth grades. 
The author, one of our foremost Ameri- 
can composers, is noted for the solid 
character of her musical works, especial- 
ly those of the educational type. Added 
to their intrinsic value, these etudettes 
should prove quite satisfying musically 
with considerable key variety and vary- 
ing rhythmic patterns. Teachers wishing 
to become acquainted with this fascina- 
ting new piano study material may order 
a copy of the book now at the special 
Advance of Publication Cash Price, 25 
cents, postpaid. 

THE MUSIC FUN BOOK— A Work Book for 
Young Piano Beginners, by 'Virginia Mont- 
gomery — This work book presents the 
music fundamentals in a variety of in- 
teresting ways, which make learning a 
delight. The organization is such that 
the teacher may present alphabet nota- 
tion. position, and time in any order de- 
sired. Repetition through the variety of 
drills presented here will imprint upon 
the beginning pupil’s mind the funda- 
mentals of music, and add immeasurably 

to his pleasure in playing. 

One copy to a customer may be or- 
dered now at the special Advance of Pub- 
lication Cash Price, 25 cents, postpaid. 

I FT’S PI.AY!— J Piano Book for Young Be- 
ginners, by Ella Ketterer— -This work now 

is well nigh ready for the market. 

Miss Ketterer has prepared ttus wok 
for the youngest beginners at the key 
Sard ! children from 5 to 7 years of age 
Much of the material is in the form o 
tuneful little pieces with verses to aid m 
establishing the rhythmic and melodic 
flow of the music. The pages abound m 
appropriate illustrations to catch and 

h T d e.a,2’S d to MV« »t pucea 

would do well to do »> th* 
while Let’s Play! still is obtain- 
” b le at the special Introductory Cash 
Price, 25 cents, postpaid. 

DR AWN— This month we will be mailing 
. vance subscribers a work that has 
aroused considerable attention. This no - 
will serve as an announcement of 
the withdrawal of the special advance of 

f mC T n mtpC, by Robert Nolan 

Kerr* takes the young pupil from Ltttte 

nmvers when completed, through ad- 
Pfayers, w study wit h charming 

^»S , ksk-“” 

!“ R ge “ f «> >• 

eft provide practical preparation for 
paying each tune. Price, 60 cents. 


I* ^ 

9 0^ X ^ o0 \,o oCCe jl^oo>^er '5 
en0t ' 6 ^ 0 

to* °P er 



beg"'""' 9 ° 
c0 ur ses 

De9 Z |ns+rumen+s 

Wind |n - 
,ducH pg 

Con c 


V°' ce ' , fAusic. 

Sch°°' der 

-e+e r ° nS Ufl ri +e 
_ ,. rs es TU ' i 0 rm, v/ ' 

o P pi*° ,:o : Ww" 

and aPH 2 So u+h 


publ' c 

5 tor^ 

GoffiP . 

Rill oh R'9 

G’ 1 ’ 8 ' 'vVildm 00 ' 

A rthU C hic° 3 ° 

/w e nd e ' 

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h0 ol 

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— Announcing the Eleventh Season- 



5 WEEiMUNE 15 TO j l LY 19 C ta». 

Band • Orchestra • tnsemo/e s 

Only $ 75.00 

For Instruction, Board, Room, and ™ 

■: "If&S L ™ 1TED 

Private Lessons at $1.00 to $1.50 hach rixtra 

For Details write J.AMES E. VanPe mSEU^Drrector 

u, m Heautiful Blue Grass Kegion of Kentucky 


School of Music 

Normal Department for the train- 
ing of teachers in modern 
methods of teaching music. 
Adult Department for students 
who wish to specialize in 
piano and musicianship. 
Junior Department for children 
and young people. 

66 East 80th Street 
New York 21, N. Y. 

Has Your Child 

the advantage of piano study with 
a member of the 



A goal of achievement for every student suitable 
to his age and advancement. 


The Better Teachers Are Members 

Chapters in every large music center 



Box 1113 





GEORGE A. WEDGE, Director 
June 30 to August 8, 1947 

Instruction in all branches of music and music education 
Professional Courses 

Opera School. Church Music. Radio Technique. 

Conducting. Stock Arranging. Jazz Improvisation 

Catalogue on request 

120 Claremont Avenue Room 122S New York 27, N. Y. 




of Improved Music Study 

Gladys M. Glenn, B. Mus., M. A., Dean 



Elsa De Voe Boyce, 105 Hyde Park Place, Tampa 6, Fla. 

Mildred Briggs, 666 Washington St., Grosse Pointe, Mich. 

Mildred M. Busch, Musical Arts Conservatory, Amarillo Tex 
Jean Warren Carrick. 910 S. E. 68th St.. Portland, Oregon 
Minnie M. Coghill, 2727 W. Grace St., Richmond 20, Va. 

Adda C. Eddy. 136 W. Sandusky Ave.. Bellefontaine, Ohio 
Grace Tudor Mason. 6262 Oram St., Dallas, Texas 
Florence Adams McKinstry, 3735 Ashland Ave., Detroit 24, Mich. 
Laud German Phippen, 3508 Potomac Ave., Dallas, Texas 
Stella H. Seymour, 1119 S. St. Mary St., San Antonio, Texas 
E. Cormne Terhune, 251 S. Miller Ave., Burley, Idaho 
Elizabeth Todd, 1007 W. Lenawee St., Lansing 15, Mich. 

Classes are to be held In connection with summer school 
curricula of several colleges and conservatories 

The Dunning Course is an and effec.ive plan of presenting Ihe fundamentals of music so that maximum 
musiciansh'p w'll he developed in the shortest possible time. It is designed for Pre-School. Elementary, Junior 
and Senior High School pupils und prepares them to be strung college! and conservatory freshmen. 

Teacher training classes earn 4 semester hours college credit 
when taken as a part of an institution’s curricula. 

Write for information and schedule of classes to 
Dunning Course Executive Headquarters, 1710 Tyler St., Amarillo, Texas 
Classes in Sail Lake City, New VorL, Chicago, Los Angeles, SanlFrancisco, New Orleans, and other cities. 


BEREA, OHIO (suburb of Cleveland) 

Affiliated with a first class Liberal Arts College. 
F . 0U f *? d . five Y ear courses leading to degrees. Faculty 
or Artist Teachers. Send for catalogue or informa- 
tion to: 





43rd year. Accredited. Offers courses 
in all branches of Music. Certificates, 
diplomas and degrees. Desirable board- 
ing accommodations. Located in down- 
town musical center. 

Box E. 306 S. Wabash Ave., Chicaflo4, III. 


Offers thoro training in music. Courses leading to 
Bachelor of Music Degree. Diploma and Certifi- 
cate m Piano, Voice, Violin, Organ, Public School 
Music Methods and Music Kindergarten Methods 
Bulletin sent free upon request 
W. ST. CLARE, MlNTURN, Director 


4 Faculty Concerts in * 
February and March 

for Admission write — 216 South 20th St. 


(for Women) 

Founded by Alfred Shorter* 


IV' S ol t tfi , , nal , m ® mb . er ° f the National Association 
^Schools of Music. Excellent faculty. Moderate 
tuition fee covers all. music and academic courses. 
Catalogue and illustrated bulletin. 

WILBUR H. ROWAND. Director of Music 


Teacher of Successful Singers 

Radio • Theatre ■ Pictures • Concert * Opera 
“STYLE -IZING" for Radio and the Theatre 

— Studio— 

607-8 Carnegie Hall New York City 

Telephone Ci 5-92-1., 

flKfiene TKearfre 

• £SStSS k iS f h. S profvss.oual eng 




r making. 

-tESttSi & Sta£e, Screen. 

public. B’waj 

seeking professional engagements 
_Radio and presented in pro- 
Talent Scouts and 

uuwing t. _ „ wll 

?!?P. Stocky _Spr mg ^course openings 


Schools— Colleges 





Edwin Gersehefskl, Dean, Spartansburg. S. C. 



Department of Music 
Galesburg, Illinois 
Thomas W. Williams, Chairman 
Catalogue sent upon request. 



Wade E. Miller. Pree. 

the B. Mua., and B. Mus. 

Vanev’ 1 n.J 11 Il ? rt ot ' the Shenandoah 

Valley, Dayton, Virginia. 

Business on The Side 

( Continued from Page 143) 

$500 to $4,000. Offices, printing, adver- 
tising, stage hands, and all other inci- 
dentals run to $1,000 per concert, mak- 
ing an anticipated over-all cost of not 
less than $6,000 per concert. The great- 
est possible income would be about 
$5,000, leaving a deficit of at least $1,000 
per concert. I have cheerfully met these 
deficits because I have the great joy of 
the response from the audience and the 
consciousness that my life is not thrown 
away through mere money grabbing. 
Eventually the project may earn money, 
in which event it could be diverted to the 
promotion of music in general. 

“It is interesting to note the way in 
which the average layman looks upon 
a conductor; as though he were a time 
keeper, or time beater, or a kind of 
human metronome. The first objective 
of an experienced conductor, however, is 
to make the music live. It must be 
brought to life; resurrected from the 
printed page. -This is done, first of all, 
by stirring the imagination of the players 
to a sympathetic cooperation in the re- 
birth of a masterpiece. Cooperation can 
best be obtained by getting the sincere 
sympathy of the players; not by dic- 
tatorial military orders. 

“One important matter which the con- 
ductor must face at the outstart is the 
matter of the entry of themes or parts. 
The layman, in looking at a conductor 
of an orchestra of eighty, le.t us say, 
thinks that the conductor is leading 
eighty different individuals; This he does, 
of course, but he thinks of them as sec- 
tions. For instance; 

f First Violin 
j Second Violin 
STRINGS -j Viola 
j ’Cello 
f Flutes 

WOODWINDS . J Clarinets 
] Oboes 
[ Bassoons 
f Trumpets 

BRASS J Trombones 

] Horns 
[Bass Tubas 

_ l Tympani arid so forth 

The conductor must hold the intense 
interest of each of these sixteen or more 
sections, whether they are playing or not 
playing. For instance, it is sometimes 
very difficult for the horns to be ready 
so that they can come in with precision. 
The conductor must actually breathe 
with his brass players, so that they enter 
at the exact moment after a rest, and 


New piano music. 

22 complete break sheets on standard 
1 Autumn (Piano Solo) 

40^. Rhapsody m Rhythm (Piano Solo 
j. . At . J° ur favorite music counter or 
direct. Write for catalog and copy of 
The Pianist magazine, both sent free of 
charge. State if teacher. 


“ Publishers of Distinctive p inno 
18 North Perry Square, Dept. 5E, Erie. Penna, 

with a quantity of sound that ranges 
from pianissimo to fortissimo. 

“Climaxes must be very carefully pre- 
pared at rehearsal. The orchestra must 
be held back, in order to reserve enough 
volume to make a real climax at the 
proper place. Probably the most difficult 
test for a conductor is to direct the ex- 
tremely slow passage. This must be done 
with great poise and exquisite finish 
Such a passage as- -one finds in Ase’s 
Death from the ‘Peer Gynt Suite, No r 
or the Largo from Handei’s ‘Xerxes’ 
which seemingly are so simple, must be 
guided with a very sure and certain hand. 

“So far as I am concerned, the Phila- 
delphia ‘Pops’ Orchestra has compen- 
sated me for more than the outlay of 
time, money, and labor I have made. I 
have a wholesome respect for the indus- 
try which has made it possible to secure 
the funds to help with this interesting 
project. It is a necessary industry in the 
food field, but I would be ashamed of 
myself if I had to conduct my business 
with such a consuming attention that it 
deprived me of living and striving to do 
things that I am now sure bring great 
joy and inspiration to others, who will 
carry this inspiration back to cheer their 
daily work. 

“My ambition at this moment, should 
anything happen to me and my curious, 
one-man sponsorship, is that the Phila- 
delphia ‘Pops’ Orchestra will be so firmly 
established that it will go on indefinitely. 
Meanwhile, I have the great satisfaction 
of knowing that I am working for an 
idealistic project. My business, of which 
I naturally am proud, is so organizer 
that it is possible for me to take severa. 
days before each concert for rehearsals 
and preparation. Therefore, music be- 
comes my main aim in life. Business is 
distinctly “on the side.’’ 

The WDrld of Music 

(' Continued, fro’m Page 175) 

pete in these classifications; singing, piano, 
violin, clarinet, and trumpet. All details 
may be secured from the Secretariat of 
the International Competition for Musi- 
cal Performers, Conservatory of Music, 
Geneva, Switzerland. 

young composers, sponsored by the Stu- 
dent Division of the National Federation 
ol Music Clubs has been announced by 
Marion Bauer, chairman. The awards 
are for ivorks in two different classifica- 
tions, choral and small orchestra. The 
two prizes in the choral contest are for 
fifty and twenty-five dollars, while the 
instrumental awards are one hundred 
dollars and fifty- dollars. The contest 
closes April 1, 1947, and full details may 
be secured from the chairman, 115 West 
73rd Street, New York 28, N. Y. 

A FIRST PRIZE of one thousand dol- 
lars, and a second prize of five hundred dol- 
lars, are the awards in a composition 
contest announced by the Jewish Music 
Council Awards Committee, sponsored 
by the National Jewish Welfare Board to 
encourage composers “to write musical 
works of Jewish content and which shall 
reflect the spirit and tradition of the 
Jewish people.” The closing date is Sep- 
tember 1, 1947. The contest is open to 
r it c< ? m P. oscrs t without restrictions, and 
lull details may be secured by writing 
tn the Jewish Music Council Awards 
Committee, care of the National Jewish 
Welfare Board, 145 East 32nd Street, 
New York 16, N Y 




CV"*' V 

, Solo 


te* . , u- 




C Si’”P ll l tCd 

ten ’ 



T»» V ' 

, »V C* 1 1 * 


of the 






Piano Solo 



Ten fovorife compositions arranged for 
piano solo. The representative works con- 
tained herein have been selected os ex- 
amples of Mozart's versatility in musical 
expression 60 cents 


Fourteen favorite compositions for piano 

solo. Schumann's mastery of detail ond 

emotional depth ore displayed to best 
odvantoge in the smaller forms — piano 
pieces ond songs 60 cents 


By N. Rimsky-Korsakov simplified for 
piono solo 60 cents 


Ten favorite compositions for piano solo 
. . . Volse Coprice, Romance, Serenade, 
Melody in F ond others 60 cents 


Twelve favorite compositions for piono 
solo. Grieg's music, be it the short form 
in which he excelled or his longer com- 
positions, lends itself readily to the 
piono 60 cents 



Please send books indicated above. 



CITY State 

O Please check here if you wish us to send you our complete catalogue. 


Prepare NOW For Tomorrow! 

Uncle Sam makes it possible for you to take practical music 
lessons by correspondence, even though you are thousands of 
miles away from your teacher. 

Definite, concise, comprehensive lessons (prepared by able, 
recognized teachers) illustrated and clearly explained — always 
before you to study and refer to over and over again. 

Nothing is left to guess work. 

An examination paper accompanies every lesson. If there is any- 
thing you don't understand it is explained to you in detail by our 
experienced teachers. 

PADEREWSKI said ot our Piano course — 

"It is one of the most important additions to the pedagog- 
ical literature on pianoforte playing published for years. 

"As an excellent guide for students and solid and reliable 
advice for teachers, it is bound to become very popular, 
and the more so as it bears the stamp of a real pianist, 
accomplished musician and experienced pedagogue " 


You are awarded a diploma when you have completed a course 
to the satisfaction of the Instruction Department and the Board of 
Directors. We are also authorized to issue the Degree of Bachelor 
of Music upon those who comply with our requirements. These 
are Harmony, History of Music, Advanced Composition and an 
advanced practice course. The latter may be voice or instru- 
mental. Each subject carries 30 semester hours. 

Remember there are splendid opportunities in the 
music Held to make a very comfortable income. 

Let us show you how. Mail the coupon today. 


Dept. A-566 765 Oakwood Blvd., Chicago 15, Illinois 

765 Oakwood Blvd., Chicago 15, Illinois. 

Please send me catalog, sample lessons and full information regarding course I have marked 
with an X below. 

0 Piano, Teacher’s Normal Course 
□ Piano, Student's Course 
0 Public School Mus. — Beginner’s 
[J Public School Mus. — Advanced 
0 Advanced Composition 
0 Ear Training Cr Sight Singing 
0 History of Music 



Cornet — T rumpet 
Advanced Cornet 

Choral Conducting 

Dance Band Arranging 





Reed Organ 


Name Adult or Juvenile 

Street No. 

City State 

Are you teaching now? If so, how many pupils have you? Do you 

hold a Teacher’s Certificate? Have you studied Harmony? 

Would you like to earn the Degree of Bachelor of Music? 


A New Electronic Organ with Tone 
of Traditional Organ Character 


After 16 years of research and development, the Baldwin 
Electronic Organ, in which tone of traditional organ char- 
acter is both generated and amplified electrically, is available 
for delivery. 

The tone-colors produced by the Baldwin Electronic Organ 
are electrical analogies of the true tone characteristics 
of Diapasons, Flutes, Strings, and Reeds. The harmonic 
structure of the initially generated tone contains all the audible 
natural harmonics or partials as well as the fundamental tone. 
In order to achieve the desired tone-colors, the undesirable 
harmonics are subtracted from the "rich” tone by means of 

Tone filters. Ihe resultant tone is amplified and projected as 
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ine action ot both manuals and pedals is so designed that 
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